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Psych sept 18.docx

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Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Psych 1000 September 182025 2012Biological Foundations of HUMAN BEHAVIOUROutlineThe organism machineDescartes and the Reflex concept Basic Nervous FunctionsReception Integration and Reaction Nerve cell and Nerve ImpulseThe neuron Interaction among nerve cellsThe reflexmechanicsInference of the synapseSynaptic mechanismThe Organism as a MachineThe Reflex ConceptDescartes was first to seriously propose that humans be studied as one would study any machineHis views are still with us today as we employ metaphorical comparisons between the human mind and computersTo Descartes ALL action was as a response to some external event FINISHChain of events o Stimulation of a senserelay to braininterpretation via the soulrelayed to muscle for action o Thus energy is taken in and REFLECTED back out in and out like to remain the same o Note use of the soul provides a means to account for inconsistency of responses people are all different and will respond in different ways Basic Nervous FunctionsWe agree with Descartes that the bulk of human behavior is reflexiveThis necessitates a Tripartite system 1 Receptionvia the senses 2 Reactionvia muscles and glands 3 Integrationmediator between reception and reaction via conduction The Tripartite SystemThe external event is called the Stimulus as it stimulates the Receptors Transducing nervesThe receptors convert the energy and channel it to bundles of nerves called afferent nerves sensoryAfferent nerves may lead to the spinal cord and travel to the brain to INTERNEURONS that connect to EFFERENT nerves motor which carry signals to muscles and glands or they may in some minority of instances connect directly to efferent nerves The Basic Building BlocksThe neuron o Several parts o Dendrites pick up info from incoming sources o Sent to cell body for some decision process is made o Decides to send signal that travels down axon o If immune system attacks neuron you get ms o Terminal endings relax or stiffen muscles o Three main partsDendritesreceive messages from other neuronsCell bodycontains FINISH o Glial cellsKeeps neurons on certain pathwaysSurround neurons and hold them in placeBrings nutrients to neuronsCarry away wasteWhere regular glucose is transformed into FINISH o Nerve ConductionNeurons have a resting potential of 70 millivolts creating a state of polarizationNeurons are surrounded by a salty liquid environment which has a high concentration of sodium ions NaThe inside of the neuron has some positively charged potassium ions K and many other negatively charged ionsThe combination creates the resting potential o The amount of change that could potentially take placeThe action potential 1 Dendrites are stimulated by axons of other neurons 2 Na ions flow into the neuron by action of ion channels making the membrane voltage more positive Depolarization
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