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Psych sept 27.docx

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Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

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Psych 1000 September 27, October 2, 4, 9, 2012 Genes, Evolution, and Behaviour Genes – what your parents contribute to your body Chromosomes – every cell has these or your body wouldn’t be able to work DNA – structural plan of who you are Everyone technically has cancer, immune system attacks and kills quickly Cancer is not a foreign thing; it is from the DNA in your body from mutated chromosomes Chromosomes are in pairs Genotype – already decided what you will look like, specific makeup when you are conceived, these never change unless YOU change them (ie. Contacts, hair colour) Phenotype – things that can change your genes (ie. How tall you CAN grow vs how tall you ACTUALLY grow) Gene – a genetic blueprint Chromosome – molecule of DNA 23 pairs of chromosomes dominant gene: if either parent gives it to you, you will display the characteristic for gene (brown or blue eyes) recessive gene: characteristics will not be displayed unless its partner gene is recessive as well (two brown eyed children to have a blue eyed child) polygenic transmission: multiple gene pairs influence phenotype genetic engineering: can look at dna ‘splice’ – cut open and insert genes ourselves only know 5% of our genes many of things that make us who we are not consequence of one single gene behavioural genetics  Parents – 50% - 23 chromosomes from each  Sibilings – 50% - 23 chromosomes from same source, not same though  Grandparents – 25% - half the 23 chromosomes from one parent for each  Having a child with someone related to you – too many like chromosomes Heritability coefficient Estimate of how much characteristics is from genetic factors Behavioural Genetics  Concordance rate o Rate of co-occurrence of a characteristic among individuals o Higher rates among individuals who are more highly related to one another = possible genetic contribution  How study? o Adoption studies: twin studies Monozygotic and Dizygotic twins  Monozygotic twins: identical chromosomes  Dizygotic twins: different chromosomes Adoption and Twin Studies  Adopted children – frequently more similar to biological parents  Identical twins more similar – even when reared apart Twin Studies compare:  Monozygotic (MZ), twins are genetically identical  Dizygotic (DZ), twins share 50% of genetic endowment Adoption Studies compare  Adoptive and biological parents  Heritability of twins Genetic Influence on Behaviour  Intelligence o MZ – should get exactly same test scores  Identical twins – correlation = 86  Parent-child – correlation = 36 Genes and environment interacting  Stay in 20 pound zone o Weight 160, stay between 180 and 140 o Boundaries - Genetics are predetermined for body type  Inherit a range for a trait  Environment determines where in those boundaries we are o No exercise and bad diet – done around 37 o Exercise and healthy diet – done around 60  Cheerful people look for cheerful people  “Misery loves company”  one twin has chicken pox, keep other twin away because they will be susceptible to the disease as well Minnesota Twin Study  genetic factors for 39%-58% of personality  unique experiences 36%-56%  familial environment for little or no variation  biological or adoptive parents, twins will still be similar no matter how they’re raised  if you come from an athletic background, you will want to play sports even if you were raised with one that wasn’t (adoptive parents) Genetic Counselors  Provision of medical info about genetic disorders and risks  Help individuals make decisions about their health pregnancies or their child’s health care  Ie. Alcoholism runs in both your families, odds are your children will get those traits and become alcoholics Evolution and Behaviour  Evolutionary psychology o How behavior and tendencies have evolved in response to environmental demands  Evolution: change over time in frequency with which genes and characteristics they produce occur within an unterbreeding population  Mutations: create genetic variations, making evolution possible, can be passed down to offspring Humans can sweat, animals cannot (cannot pant while running, overheat) Egg came before the chicken (mutation) Adaptions  Cancer used to not be such a high killer of people  Environment has changed to make it that way o Diabetes, cancer (airplanes and flight attendants)  If you have susceptible gene you disappear, if you don’t you stay o Camping dishes – powered form is protein but cheaper, added this to dog food instead of proteins but was toxic and dogs started to die, o Then baby formula had same ingredient and babies started to die in China o Beheaded company president after this Ex. Of Human Adaptation Bipedal locomotion -> development of tools, weapons -> social organization (hunting and gatherings groups) -> change in brain structure (language areas) Evolution of Human Brain  Greatest growth in cerebral cortex (i.e. Areas concerned with higher ment
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