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psych sept 11.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Psych 1000 September 11, 2012 The Biological Perspective  Sociobiology o Natural selection favours complex social behaviours that increase the ability to pass on one’s genes to the next generation o Medical, surgery and practices can help extend the life time of humans o More people, more functions to fulfill; more functions to fulfill, more things for society together  Aggression, competition, dominance in males  Cooperative, nurturing behavior in females  Females now feel the need to pursue a career before having children so they will be able to continue a career after; women are only fertile for so long therefore pulling down the birth rates  The older you are having a child, the more complications you may have Identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins  Even when reared in different homes The Cognitive Perspective Humans are:  Information processors  Problem solvers (Enhanced Academic Performance Time management skills Test preparation strategies Study skills Test-taking skills (testwiseness))  Structuralism o Sensations are basic elements of consciousness o How you know you’re alive o Wilhelm Wundt: first person to study this  Functionalism o Psychology should study the functions of behavior o William James Modern Cognitive Science  Artificial intelligence o Computer models and “expert” systems  What can be done with certain behaviours to see the results  What happened to make what you see possible  Cognitive neuroscience o Electrical recording and brain imaging  The brain is important and does a lot of work  Certain organs you do not need (appendix, tonsils) but you need your brain  Social constructivism o “reality” is our own mental creation o everyone listens more clearly to things that interest them, everyone takes different things away from information o allows you to make yourself feel good, but when you die your universe comes to an end  everyone has their own universe  share things about our universes with each other Uncertainty o many researchers in different areas of psychology are interested in uncertainty or ambiguity in human behavior o for example, the meanings of sentences could have different meanings o verbal ambiguity can also exist at the level of individual words LEAD To take someone somewhere A material Ambiguity o in summary ambiguity reveals complexity in human information processing o it can show how an immediately preceding event can affect interpretation Automated behavior o it is also a fact that all of our prior experiences can affect our behavior o an example is READING – it is everywhere, cant stop yourself from reading all the signs and posters all over, some things you read never change (street signs) while others change (advertisments) o reading is so over learned or practiced that upon exposure to written material we read it o an eloquent demonstration of this is called the STROOP effect – basically an increase in response time due to automatic reading o things can only be explained when you read it o example, words of colours being printed in other colours  you cannot help but read the word instead of say the colour it is o this effect can also be obtained with other stimuli o for example letters and numbers where the task is to simply count the number of elements in a display o generality suggests the effect is that the two inputs from the second sets in each example Sensation and Perception o infant perception o depth perception appears INNATE o as an infant will not pass over a visual cliff despite the fact that they can feel the glass they see the difference in depth o “The Visual Cliff” o Gibson has shown that infants refuse to crawl on glass o This suggests that depth perception is unlearned because infants would not normally have has a real cliff experience by this age The Behavioural Perception o Focuses on the role of the external environment in shaping and governing behaviour o Wont learn how to drive if you don’t have a car to learn with o Emphasis is placed on the effects of rewards and punishments o Radical behaviourism o Behavior can be controlled completely by manipulation the environment o B.F. Skinner o Cognitive Behaviourism o We learn new behaviours by observing the actions of others o Our mental abilities influence our environment  Pushing something without wheels as opposed to having wheels on it (easy vs hard) The Psychodynamic Perspective o Sigmund Freud o Emphasizes the roles of o Unconscious processes  Not being able to remember the name of someone but then remembering hours or days later  Answer is in an unconscious part of brain, bringing it to the conscious part when found o Unresolved past conflicts o Childhood o Psychosexual stages of development  COME FOR FREUD LECTURES, NO POWERPOINTS (TERM 2) o Freud’s influence on contemporary psychology o Brain mechanisms for conscious experience of emotions have been discovered (Le Doux, 1996) o Many aspects of information processing outside awareness have been found (Wegner, 2000) The Humanistic Perspective (what we know, freedom to operate in environments, making our own choices, being the best we can be) o Emphasizes:
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