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sept 27 lecture- the brain .docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

The Brain 9/27/2012 10:11:00 AM Review of Neurons Drug Effects Gross Brain Anatomy Next time: Disorders & Lateralization: FINISH CHAPTER 3 (ESP 97- 101) Video-Phineas Gage: a pole went thru the brain limbic system is disconnected form the frontal lobe: completely change a person’s behavior and character. The rod separated limbic system from the frontal lobe, which relies on control from limbic system. Because of this, his emotions became out of control: if limbic system is injured, you would be unable to carry out organized sequence of actions to satisfy your need Today’s Question:  what happens when multiple neurons synapse  how do drugs work  what are the major structures of the brain? Know more about functionality than memorizing brain structures Synaptic transmission  occurs only in the central nervous system  occurs instantaneously  does not involve chemical communication  explains the delay in response latency for the reflex arc  is found only in small foreign cars Neurons  semipermeable membrane  charge due to ions (-70 mv)  action potential results from Na+ and K+ exchange  neurons generate action potentials in “all or none” fashion  intensity coded as frequency Synapse  action potential “pushes” vesicles toward gap  neurotransmitters diffuse across gap  lock and key rectors Depolarization  EPSP Postsynaptic membrane becomes more negative by opening K+ channels. Postsynaptic membrane becomes more negative, result in IPSP (inhibitory) Neurotransmitters (red important in psych field)  acetycholine (ACh)  norepinephrine (NE)  dopamine (DA)  serotonin (5-HT)  Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) Drug Effects: drug interferes with effects of neurotransmitters  increase or decrease amt of transmitter  processes that terminate transmitter action, block reuptake  stimulates or blocks receptor sites Cocaine  stimulates release of dopamine (DA), make you feel good  prevents re-uptake of DA at the same time  result: get very high  too much DA in synapse drug induced psychosis Curare  blocks receptor sites from Ach, now ACh can’t do anything paralyzed  ACh is involved with movement,  used to paralyze Black Widow Venom  stimulates release of ACh  ACh speeds up heart beat, if too much ACh, heart will explode Botulism Toxin  Blocks release of ACh  can't get ACh out anymore  stops basic bodily function exp digestive system, intestine doesn't move anymore Nicotine agonist, results in release of neurotransmitters  Stimulates receptor molecules, “duplicating” effects of ACh  receptors think that ACh is attached, when really it is nicotine Caffeine antagonist (prevents neurotransmitter from performing desired result)  Blocks adenosine receptor site  adenosine makes you sleepy. Since it is blocked, you won’t feel sleepy anymore. Summary all neurons fire. i.e. generate action potentials  all or none  intensity coded as frequency “Excitatory Neurons” vs. “Inhibitory Neurons”  different transmitters  influence of receptor sites “Excitatory Neurons”  Depolarize Postsynaptic membrane (EPSP) “Inhibitory Neurons”  Hyperpolarize Postsynaptic membrane (IPSP) EPSP’s & IPSP’s are additive across sp
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