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oct 9 lecture- Heritability, Genetic Base of Intelligence, Genetic Disorders .docx

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Psychology 1000

Genetics 10/9/2012 10:21:00 AM Heritability Genetic Base of Intelligence Genetic Disorders Net Time: Evolution Scan: finish chapter 4 Video: Nature and Nurture: the study of twins Study the difference between identical twins and fraternal twins Intelligence needs stimulation Today’s Questions:  how do I estimate heritability  is intelligence heritable?  what is the cause of genetic disorders? you have dark hair (dominant) if we examined your karyotype, we would find that your alleles for hair color were a. homozygous b. heterozygous c. mixed d. on different chromosomes e. a or b above differences within groups due entirely to genes differences between groups due entirely to environment  in poor soil, plants are in different heights (due to genes)  in fertile soil, similar plant heights (due to environment) Heritability of Intelligence family relationship studies need to know the genetic relationship of the 2 ppl that I’m measuring  identical twins-100% (share all genetic material)  fraternal twins- 50% (just like other siblings)  parent, sibling- 50%  grandparent, uncle, aunt- 25%  1st cousin- 12.5%  compare identical twins with other groups- be able to know how much genes influence the intelligence Bouchard  remarkable similarity  consider: Jim Lewis & Jim Springer o raised in different families o reunited in age of 39 o both have similar medical history, like math, hated spelling…MANY SIMILARITIES… o genetics plays a very important role in them Galton: Hereditary Genius 1869  relatives of intelligent people  believed that intelligence is caused by genes  successful business men have successful business sons?  adopted sons were not as successful  measure simple motor and sensory abilities-reaction test.  believes that intelligence was unitary (mental quickness)  develops correlation coefficient  results disappointing- there is no absolute correlation between genes and intelligence Sir Cyril Burt  large scale study of twins reared apart (separted in 2 different environments)  reports h^2 approaching 1.0 (intelligence is due to genes and genes alone) Bouchard’s Twin Studies looking at the actual correlations between identical twins (raised apart, and reared together)  identical twins, apart- 0.72  identical twins, together- 0.86 (even better)  fraternal twins, together- 0.60  siblings, together- 0.47  adopted sibs, together- 0.34  same person- 0.87  the more genetically similar, the more correlated you are in intelligence. h^2= 0.72 not saying that IQ is genetically determined of the observed variability in measured IQ, we can attribute 72% to genetic factors. Scarr& Carter- Saltzman (1979) important assumption:  no environmental differences for identicals vs. fraternals o if identical, parents often treat them similar, dress them identically. o if treated differently, then environment is going to have an effect. Absolute difference Scores (l
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