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Chapter 13 – Psychological Disorders A comprehensive summary of key terms and aspects of the required learnings / teachings from Ch. 13.

6 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

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Chapter 13Psychological DisordersHistorial Perspectives on Psychological DisordersThe Demonological View o Abnormal behaviour was claimed to be work of the devil o Procedure called trephination drilled hole in skull to release evil spiritsEarly Biological Views o Hippocrates suggested that mental illnesses are diseases just like physical disorders o Believed that site of illness was the brain o Biological emphasis increased after discovery that general paresis mental deterioration disorder resulted from brain deteriorationPsychological Perspectives o Freud believed that psychological disorders are caused by unresolved conflictsDisorders that dont involve a loss of contact with reality obsessions phobias etc called neurosesSevere disorders involving a withdrawal from reality called psychoses o Vulnerabilitystress modeleveryone has some degree of vulnerability to developing a disorderVulnerability can have biological basis brain malfunction or hormonal factorCan also arise from personality factors such as low selfesteemVulnerability often only causes disorder when a stressor combines with it to trigger the appearance of the disorderDefining and Classifying Psychological DisordersWhat is Abnormal o Three criteria seem to govern decisions about abnormalityDistressingwe are likely to label behaviours abnormal if they intensely distress an individualDysfunctionalmost behaviours that are abnormal are dysfunctional for the individual or societyDevianceabnormality of a behaviour is based on societys judgments of the deviance of it o Abnormal behaviourbehaviour that is personally distressful personally dysfunctional andor culturally deviantDiagnosing Psychological Disorders o Classification must be set up that meets standards of reliability high levels of agreement in decisions among clinicians and validity diagnostic categories accurately capture the essential features of disorders o Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSMIV most widely used diagnostic systemAllows diagnostic information to be represented along five dimensionsAxis Ipersons primary clinical symptomsAxis IIlongstanding personality or developmental disorders that could influence behaviour and response to treatmentAxis IIIphysical conditions that might be relevantAxis IVintensity of environmental stressorsAxis Vpersons coping resourcesCritical Issues in Diagnostic Labeling o Diagnoses can have important legal consequences o Law tries to take into account the mental status of individuals accused of crimesCompetencydefendants state of mind at time of a judicial hearing not during committing of crimeInsanitypresumed state of mind of defendant at time of crimeAnxiety Disorders
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