Dreams and Learning
Theories of Dreaming
Classical Conditioning Model
Are nightmares common?
Why do we dream?
How do we learn by classical conditioning?
Mostly in colour
Duration directly related to duration of dream
Eye movements related to action
Events unfold in real time
Why do we remember some dreams?
Those in the last REM period
Reflection of cortical activity
Vivid, high anxiety dream
Significant stress correlated with increased frequency
In adults, correlated with psychopathology (anxiety)
More common in children
Nightmares: Drug related
Cipro, antihistamines, L=dopa
Wood and Bootzin (1990)
Do “healthy” people have nightmares?
Surveyed 220 students
Measured both frequency of nightmares and anxiety
Self reported mean = 9 per year
Dream logs indicated an average of 25 per year
Measured anxiety unrelated to frequency
Theories of Dreaming Freudian/Psychodynamic
Activation - Synthesis
Unconscious - Id
Repressed wishes to strive for expression
Wants to sl