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Thinking and Problem Solving.docx

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Psychology 1000

Thinking and Problem Solving Language Learning Heuristic Processing Problem Solving How do infants acquire language? What is thought? What shortcuts do people use problem solving? How many morphemes are in the word, “crosswords’? = 2 The One-Word Speaker  5 to 8 months of age respond to parent’s words  Talking begins 10 to 20 months  Early vocabulary simple  Likely to contain objects that an infant can manipulate (“ball” more likely than ceiling”)  Difficult to tell what kids mean when they use single words  Tend to under generalize Examples of spoken words  Nouns: (mama, duck)  Interactions (hi, peekaboo)  Adjectives (hot, big)  Number 1 word (no) The Two-Word Speaker  Telegraphic speech  Starts around 2 years old  Vocabulary = Several hundred words  Speech shows proper organization  “Throw ball” not “Ball throw” More than two words  By 2 and a half years child moves beyond 2 words, and sentences become more complex  Start searching for rules of generalization  The 4 or 5 year old makes mistakes in tense  E.g. “Runned” not “ran”, “Eated” not “ate”  Child now overgeneralizes rules  Formal schooling takes over Nature vs. Nurture  So far it seems as if the brain is “hard-wired” for language  Will language develop “on its own”? Examples A. Wild Children a. No (Are they able to learn how to speak) b. Consider Amala and Kamala c. 1.5 years, 8 years B. Isolated Children
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