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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - The Brain.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Psychology 1000 The Brain September 27, 2012 Next Time: Lateralization Scan: Finish Chapter 3  What happens when multiple neurons synapse  How do drugs work?  What are the major structures of the brain?  Synaptic transmission explains the delay in response latency for a reflex arc Neurons  Neurons are bags of fluid with semi-permeable membranes  Charge of neurons is due to ions (-70mV)  Action potential results from Na+ and + exchange  Neurons generate action potentials in an “all or none” fashion  Intensity coded as frequency Synapse  Action potential “pushes” vesicles toward gap  Neurotransmitters diffuse across the gap  Lock and key receptors  Not called an action potential: called an EPSP, result of depolarization at the post-synaptic membrane  Hyperpolarization is the result of opening potassium channels, becomes even more negative than it was: IPSP Neurotransmitters  Acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, gamma aminobutyric acid Drug Effects  Increase or decrease amount of transmitter  Processes that terminate transmitter action  Stimulates or blocks receptor sites Cocaine  Stimulates the release of dopamine  Also prevents the re-uptake of dopamine  Causes a high -> but dopamine is related to many systems like motor-related and sensory  Can cause drug-induced psychosis -> like schizophrenia; schizophrenia is caused by too much dopamine in the system Curare  Causes paralysis  Blocks receptor sites for Acetylcholine  Acetylcholine is linked to movement, thus paralysis  If you ingest, it will paralyze respiratory system and you will die Black Widows  Black widow venom stimulates the release of Acetylcholine Psychology 1000 The Brain September 27, 2012  Keeps dumping Ach everywhere in the body;  Ach helps keep your heart going, your heart will beat faster and faster until your heart explodes Botulism toxin (food poisoning)  Blocks the release of Ach  Covers the synaptic knob so you can’t get Ach out  Not going to stop basic bodily functions, but makes you sick because it interferes with digestive system Nicotine -> agonist  Stimulates receptor molecules  Duplicates the effects of Ach  Mimics Ach, receptor sites think that nicotine is Ach Caffeine -> antagonist  Blocks adenosine receptor sites Agonists & Antagonists  Agonist= any drug that facilitates the neurotransmitter  Antagonist=drugs that block neurotransmitters Summary  All neurons fire, i.e. generate action potentials (all or none)  Intensity is coded as frequency  Excitatory neurons vs. inhibitory neurons  Different transm
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