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Psychology 1000 - Lecture 23.docx

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Psychology 1000 Thursday January 23 Lecture 3 Chapter 11: Motivation and Emotion Outline: I. Biological Needs: Theories of Motivation a. Drive Theory b. Psychodynamic Theory c. Humanistic Theory II. Sexual Motivation III. Theories of Emotion Sample Exam Question 1: If you designed a test to assess verbal intelligence using only visual spatial skills, & repeatedly found that the test produced the same results time after time, the test would be considered to have: a) Good reliability b) Good construct validity c) Poor construct validity d) Both A and B above e) Both A and C above Answer: E – both A and C above Sample Exam Question 2: According to research, intelligence tests have the best predictive validity for predicting: a) Secondary school grades b) University grades c) College grades d) Job performance e) All of the above equally Answer: A – secondary school grades (the correlation is +0.6) 1. Biological Needs: Theories of Motivation Motivation: A process that influence the direction, persistence, and vigor of self- directed behaviour • Comes from the Latin word, “to move” • Psychologists are interested in studying the factors that move us towards our goals • Psychology has diverse theoretical perspectives to attempt to explain basic motivational concepts. Drive Theory • The body has an internal balance or homeostasis that it tries to maintain • If we have a biological need (need for food, water, oxygen, etc…) creates a drive state (hunger, thirst, etc…). Those behaviours that reduce the drive are strengthened, and those that do not reduce the drive are weakened. o Humans try to maintain this state of homeostasis (internal physical equilibrium) o Eg. Humans have an average internal temperature of 98 degrees. If your body is warmer than this, you shiver – if your body is colder, you shiver. • Expectancy Theory (and Incentives) o The “pull” of external stimuli that have a high value to the individual o Intrinsic Motivation – the activity is rewarding in and of itself o Extrinsic Motivation – we are being rewarded externally o Increasing the external reward for a behaviour makes the behaviour less rewarding for itself (decreases intrinsic motivation, it is no longer rewarding for its own sake) o This is directly related to Skinner (operant conditioning) o Eg. You attend class not because you are biologically programmed to be a student, but because there is something externally motivating you (get a good job, get good grades) Behavioural Theories • What motivates behaviour? (related to Thorndike’s Law of Effect) The desire to: o Maximize positive consequences o Minimize negative consequences • Human Drives: (overview for the lecture) o Biological drives (*Survival related)  Hunger  Thirst  Sexual drives o Unconscious drives  Freudian theory o Self-actualizing drives  Humanistic & Existential theories  Need for achievement o Social Drives  Need for affiliation (some people are driven to keep other people close to them, others don’t mind as much being alone) Biological Drives • The Regulation of Hunger & Eating o The initial theory was that the lateral hypothalamus was like a “hunger on” switch, and the ventromedial hypothalamus was like a “hunger off” switch (tells you to stop eating)  Eg. A rat had his ventromedial hypothalamus removed, and he continued eating until he became obese o Hormonal regulation  High levels of insulin stimulate hunger  High levels of leptin inhibit hunger o Glucostatic Theory – Fluctuations in blood glucose level are monitored in the brain by glucostats (specialized neurons) o Learned preferences and habits  Exposure and observational learning can tell us about what causes hunger  Food paired with comfort (classical conditioning) • Eg. Some people pair food such as chocolate and ice cream with comfort  When and what we eat is a learned behaviour • In our culture, we usually eat 3 meals a day, with snacks in between meals o Food-related cues  The appearance of a food, its aroma, and the effort required to prepare it o Anxiety and appetite  Severe anxiety is related to a diminished appetite  When the sympathetic nervous system is aroused, it inhibits hunger  With depression, sometimes people eat more, and sometimes people eat less (it can depend on the person) o How do biological and environmental factors interact?  How hungry would you need to be to eat something you would otherwise find repulsive? • Survival is a strong instinct, and it is difficult for us to know what we would do unless we were in that situation. o Factors Affecting Weight & Appetite:  The heritability of weight: • Identical twins were much more similar than fraternal twins • This indicates that genetics is important • Genetic predisposition for body mass index, indicated through adoption studies • The concept of set point o It is the size, not the number of fat cells • Bodily homeostasis o When someone goes on a diet and restricts food, it sometimes leads to disinhibition (the opposite effect) Eating Disorders • Very closely linked to society definitions of beauty o In our society, beauty is defined as very thin, although this hasn’t always been the case • Social Learning Effects & The Media o Body dissatisfaction has increased in both men and women over the past 25 years o A study in 1972 found that women were more dissatisfied than males in regards to every body part o In 1997, studies show that males have become more dissatisfied than females in terms of dissatisfaction with their chest (but both men and women have increased dissatisfaction since 1972) • Eating Disorders & Misperceptions o Women want to be thinner than what men actually find attractive o Men want to be more buff than women actually find attractive (but the discrepancy is smaller with men than it is for women – women are more off-track in their thinking) • Anorexia Nervosa o People with anorexia see themselves as fat even when they are deathly thin (overestimate their body size) o Prevalence is less than 1% of the population (fairly rare)  Of this 1%, prior to puberty: 50% are male and post puberty: 1-5% are male o The onset is 14-17 years of age o Multiple health problems:  Depletion of bone mass  Brain atrophy (brain cells start to die off)  Organ failure  Death in 15% of cases o Diagnostic criteria:  Refusal to maintain body weight  An intense fear of being fat • Despite being underweight • They are 15% under their expected weight (eg. If they should be 100 pounds, they would weigh 85 pounds or less)  Distortions in perception of body weight • Body weight is tied into self-esteem  Amenorrhea • They body weight has dropped so low that the menstrual cycle stops o Two Subtypes:  1) Restricting – take in very little food each day  2) Purging – still restrict what they are taking in, but also vomit or use laxatives • Bulimia Nervosa o Prevalence is 1-4.5%  Of these, 5-10% are males (more males with bulimia than anorexia) o Onset is in the late teens or early 20s o Subtypes of bulimia:  1) Purging – vomiting or laxative use  2) Non-purging – fasting or exercise o In both cases there are frequent, recurrent cycles of:  Episodes of binge eating  Dangerous measures to prevent weight gain  At least twice a week for a 3 month period (criteria to be diagnosed) o Self-evaluation is unduly influenced by their weight o They have a real sense of powerlessness • Binge Eating (not currently classified, but they are thinking of adding it) o Frequent, recurrent cycles of episodes of binge eating (more than normal) o There is a sense of lack of control over eating o Marked distress about binge eating o To be diagnosed: On average, it happens at least 2 days/week for a 6 month period o There are a greater number of post pubertal males impacted than for anorexia  For males, anorexia is the least prevalent o The difference between binge eating and bulimia is that with binge eating, there are no attempts to try to lose weight (no compensatory behaviours)  These individuals are typically overweight o The main problem is impulse control • Causes of Eating Disorders: o Biological Factors:  Genetic – higher concordance amongst identical twins  There is an abnormal activity of serotonin and other chemicals that regulate eating  Individuals with anorexia have more trouble gaining weight because they have a decrease in appetite because of a decrease in leptin o Psychological:  Anorexia • Perfectionistic, need for control • Report parents disapproving with high standards • Report more stressful events related to parents  Bulimia • Tend to be more depressed and anxious with low impulse control • Lack a stable sense of personal identity • Binge eating tends to be triggered by stress, followed by guilt and self-contempt o Social/Cultural:  The cultural standards of beauty play a role (these eating disorders used to only be in North America)  The highest prevalence is still in Western industrialized countries Psychodynamic Theory • What motivates human behaviour? o Freud would say that it is unconscious drives and impulses o He would say that we attempt to keep these impulses out of our awareness • The 3 components of our personality are struggling for control o ID  Instinctive impulses  Eros – sexual  Thanatos – aggressive  Operates according to the *pleasure principle  (Like the devil on your shoulder) o EGO  Mediates between the id and the superego  “Ego strength” – Freud said that little boys identified with their father and internalized his values (Oedipal complex)  *Reality principle o SUPEREGO  Morals  A sense of right or wrong  (Like the angel on your shoulder) Humanistic Theory (Abraham Maslow) • Viewed individuals as essentially good (in contrast to how Freud saw people) • Humans have a basic need to develop their capacities to the highest degree o “What a man can be, he must be” • Maslow classified humans as having a hierarchy of needs (leading to self actualization) • Deficiency Needs – physiological survival AND • Growth Needs – to develop our potential 3. Sexual Motivation • Hormonal Regulation o Estrogen (females) o Androgen (males)  Testosterone – an androgen, but is important in both males and females • High levels of testosterone are related to high levels of desire • Pheromones o When a group of females live together, their menstrual cycles become synchronized o Aphrodisiacs – none of these actually increase sexual desire • Erotic Materials o eg. pornography • Attraction to a partner o Different people find different things attractive
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