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Psychology 1000 - Lecture 30.docx

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

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Psychology 1000 Thursday January 30 Lecture 4 Chapter 12: Lifespan Development (Part 1) Practice Exam Question: Which of the following is similar to both anorexia and bulimia? a) Lack of a stable sense of self b) High perfectionism c) High need for control d) Self-esteem highly impacted by body image e) Both B and D above Answer: D – Self-esteem highly impacted by body image Practice Exam Question: According to Maslow’s Humanistic theory, which of the following is/are true? a) Love and belongingness are basic human needs. b) Human behavior is motivated primarily by drives and maintaining a homeostasis. c) Self-actualization is the ultimate human goal. d) Human behavior is motivated primarily by the consequences of the behavior. e) Both A and C Answer: E – both A and C Outline: I. Definitions II. Methodology for Studying Development III. Physical Development a. Conception b. Prenatal Development c. Teratogens d. The Newborn IV. Child and Adolescent Development 1. Definitions Developmental Psychology • The study of physical, cognitive and social/emotional changes throughout the lifespan (from birth to death) o In this class, we will talk about developmental psychology from conception to death 2. Methodology for Studying Development Research Methods • Longitudinal o The same individuals are studied over long periods of time o eg. To study children’s development, you would recruit a group of grade 1 students and follow them over 8 years o Problems:  Subject attrition – subjects drop out of the study over time  Practice effects – if you’re always using the same study methods, the participants will get familiar with them • Cross-Sectional o People of different ages are all studied at the same time o eg. Recruit a group of grade 1’s, grade 2, etc… until grade 8 and study them at the same time o Problems:  Cohort effects – differences due to different life experiences • Longitudinal-Sequential o Persons of different ages are studied over long periods of time o eg. You would recruit a group of grade 1, grade 2, etc… until grade 8 students and follow them over a period of 5 years Longitudinal vs. Cross-Sectional Studies • You should look at the table that is in your textbook and be familiar with it for the exam 3. Physical Development Conception • Ovulation occurs about every 28 days o A mature egg is released and picked up by the fallopian tubes o About 300 million sperm are in each ejaculation (about 2000 reach the egg) o Conception occurs when one sperm penetrates the egg o If more than one egg is released and both are fertilized, you would end up with fraternal twins • Sex Determination o The sex is dependent on the X or Y chromosome present in the sperm  One chromosome is contributed by each parent o XX  female o XY  male o The Y chromosome has a TDF (testicular determining factor) gene  The testes develop by 6-8 weeks after conception  The testes then secrete androgen, which helps to masculinize the fetus  If this process doesn’t occur, it is possible for a genetically male child to have female genitals Prenatal Development • Zygote (the fertilized egg) o Travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus o About 36 hours after fertilization, the egg begins to divide o If it divides into two cell masses, it will develop into identical twins  If the cell masses only partially separate, you will have conjoined twins o 5-7 days after conception, the zygote implants in the lining of the uterus, forming a placenta during the implantation process o Up to this point is the germinal stage • Embryonic Period (0-8 weeks) o All of the major organ systems are formed o 3 Layers of Cells:  Endoderm differentiates into the digestive system  Mesoderm differentiates into the skeleton, muscles, reproductive, and circulatory systems  Ectoderm differentiates into the nervous system and skin o Another group of cells, the TROPHOBLAST develops into the placenta  The placenta nourishes the fetus and acts as a site for exchange of substances between the mother’s blood and the fetus’ blood • It also provides oxygen and nutrients • High levels of estrogen and progesterone are what cause symptoms of pregnancy (eg. morning sickness)  The umbilical cord doesn’t develop until the 5 week 3 Trimesters of Pregnancy (each lasts 3 months): 1. End of the First Trimester • The external body parts and internal organs have been formed • The fetus is about 4” and weighs about ¾ oz. • It starts to look like a small infant • From this point on, development will consist mainly of the enlargement and differentiation of structures that are already present. • This is the most important time of development, and the time when the most damage can be caused by toxins 2. Second Trimester • 3-6 months after conception • By the 14 week, fetal movements are felt (“quickening”) th • By the 18 thek, a fetal heartbeat can be detected • By the 20 week, the fetus opens its eyes • By the 24 week, the fetus is sensitive to light and sound o There are vigorous arm and leg movements 3. Third Trimester • From 6-9 months • Skin loses downy hair and has a wrinkly appearance as the baby puts on more weight • The baby moves into the birth position with the head down • The last 2 months have the most rapid weight gain o The average newborn weighs 7.5 lbs. and is 20 inches long th • Only about 50% of babiesthorn at the end of the 7 month survive o 80% born in the 8 month survive Teratogens • Teratogens o Substances that cause birth defects in babies • Antibiotics o Can cause deafness, or bone and tooth deformities if taken by the mother • Antidepressants o Tricyclics (eg. Imipramine) have been associated with some birth defects (mixed results), but have no effect on later development o Lithium (used to treat bipolar disorder) is associated with cardiovascular abnormalities o Prozac has been found to have no adverse effects o Often if a mother is depressed when she is pregnant, they may suggest shock therapy (because it doesn’t have any effect on the unborn child) • Cigarettes o If the mother smokes cigarettes, there is a higher risk of infant illness o Low birth weight o Later children may be more hyperactive, lower IQ and motor skills • Marijuana o There are later difficulties (especially tremors and visual problems) o Later children are more inattentive, have a lower IQ and motor skills (similar to cigarette smoking) • Caffeine o Causes complications during labour and delivery Drinking During Pregnancy • The effects depend on the amount and frequency • Regular Drinking (1-2 times daily) o Impaired fine (finger movements) and gross motor skills (walking, running) o Slower information processing • Irregular Binge Drinking (5 or more drinks on one occasion) o Lower intelligence o Later academic and behavior problems • Alcohol Abuse (6 or more drinks daily) o About 50% of infants will have fetal alcohol syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) • Growth deficiencies o Both prenatal and postnatal • Small eye openings, joint, limb, and heart malformations • Small brain • Lower IQ o About 85% of those born with FAS have an IQ of about 70 (in the mild mentally retarded range) Other Teratogens: • Diseases (rubella, chicken pox, mumps, herpes, AIDS) o Of mothers who are HIV+ when pregnant, only about 50% are born HIV+ (they are looking into why this is) • Malnutrition o Folic acid helps with the development of the central nervous system • Stress hormones o Maternal stress can lead to premature birth • Radiation • 1950s Thalidomide tragedy o About 12,000 children were effected o This drug was given for morning sickness and the children were born with malformed limbs The Newborn • Reflexes o Rooting – if you stroke the baby’s cheek, it would turn and try to eat o Grasping – it can grasp objects and fingers o Step – if you hold them up, they’ll take steps like they’re trying to walk o Crawl – they have the reflex to try to crawl o *All of these reflexes are innate (doctors check to make sure they have them at birth) • Perception o Vision is very poor (infants have 20/300 vision)  They have to be 20 feet away from something to see something that would normally be seen at 300 feet  They prefer patterns, faces, and new information o Auditory is excellent at birth  There is a preference for familiar voices  They often recognize their mother’s and sometimes father’s voice o Smell is excellent at birth  Research has shown that if you put a piece of the mother’s clothing on one side of the infant and another woman’s clothing on the other side, it will turn towards it’s mother’s clothing o The infant is able to visually track a moving object, and they use visual scanning  At first they focus on the outside edges of an object, and by 2 months they begin focusing on the internal features of the object (eg. someone’s face) Physical Development Principles: • Cephalocaudal Principle: The infant develops from head to foot • Proximodistal Principle: The infant develops from inner body parts and extends outward • The brain shows the most rapid growth o By 6 months of age, the brain has doubled in weight o By 5 years old, the brain has reached 90% of its adult weight 4. Child and Adolescent Development Integrated Model of Development • We will look at this from a holistic and biopsychosocial model • Biological Contribution o Genetics/biology sets limits • Environmental Contribution o Experience contributes to development o Critical Periods – a period of time where certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally  eg. after 5 years of age, it will be difficult to develop language Developmental Theories • Development is more continuous, a limitation of the stage-like theories Cognitive Development (Piaget’s Theory) • Adaptation – building mental representations of the world thr
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