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Psychology 1000 - February 6.docx

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Psychology 1000 Thursday February 6 Lecture 5 Chapter 12: Lifespan Development (Part 2) Practice Exam Question: The task of conservation first develops in the Piaget’s _________ period. a) Sensorimotor b) Preoperational c) Concrete operational d) Formal operational e) None of the above Answer: C – concrete operational Practice Exam Question: Research evaluating Piaget’s theory of cognitive development has found: a) Cognitive development occurs more globally than Piaget suggested. b) Inconsistent with Piaget’s theory egocentrism resurfaces in adolescence. c) Object permanence develops earlier than Piaget suggested. d) A stage more advanced than formal operational thinking may exist in some adults. e) All of the above Answer: E – all of the above Outline: I. Moral Development a. Erikson’s Theory II. Physical & Sexual Development III. Social/Emotional Development IV. Changes Throughout Adulthood The Daycare Controversy • High quality day care provides: o A stimulating environment with well-trained caregivers o Only a few children per caregiver o Low staff turnover (because children attach to caregivers) • Daycare and Attachment o High quality daycare did not disrupt attachment to parents. o Risk of insecure attachment if:  Childcare is poor  The child spends many hours at poor daycare  Parents are insensitive to the child at home • Daycare and Social Behavior o There are no significant differences through age 4 ½ (daycare vs. raised by mother) o There tend to be more problems in behaviour of those in daycare by age 4 ½ (but this effect disappeared by grade 3) • Daycare and Cognitive Performance o There are no significant differences through age 4 ½ (daycare vs. raised by mother) o Among children in daycare:  Higher quality daycare was associated with better cognitive performance o After school care:  Regardless of the type of care (whether it’s high quality or not), the most important thing is a secure attachment to the parents The Effects of Divorce on Children • Stats Canada (2003) – Tth divorce rate in Canada is 40% by the time the couple reaches their 30 anniversary (and many other couples are separated) • There is an overall pattern of maladjustment in 10% of children from non- divorced families (the control group), and 20-25% of divorced families o Long term: There is a greater risk of academic problems, troubled relationships with family and peers, low self-esteem and depression o As adolescents: The individuals are more likely to drop out of school, be unemployed, use drugs, and become unmarried teen parents o As adults: More conflict in relationships, unemployment, depression (especially in females), and higher divorce rates Kholberg’s Moral Reasoning • Kholberg studied why people make the judgements that they do • Example of an Ethical Dilemma: Heinz’s wife is dying of cancer. A rare drug might save her, but the druggist who made the drug for $200 • Kholberg is most interested in the reason for their decision. Level of Moral Reasoning Basis of Judging What is Moral LEVEL 1: PRECONVENTIONAL Punishment/rewards not internalized values Stage 1: Punishment/Obedience Orientation - Obeying rules/Avoiding punishment Stage 2: Instrumental/Hedonistic Orientation - Self-interest & gaining rewards LEVEL 2: CONVENTIONAL Conformity to expectations of social groups/Adopt others’ values Stage 3: Good Child Orientation - Gaining approval/Good relationships Stage 4: Law & Order Orientation - Respect for authority/social order LEVEL 3: POSTCONVENTIONAL Moral principles well thought out & part of one’s moral/belief system Stage5: Social Contract Orientation - General principles agreed upon by society Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles - Abstract ethical principles based on justice/equality & one’s conscience • These stages vary according to age • Moral Reasoning o Childhood through adolescence:  Pre-conventional to conventional reasoning o Adolescence and even adulthood:  Post conventional reasoning is uncommon o *A person’s moral judgments do not always reflect the same stage • Criticisms of Kholberg’s Theory: o Western cultural bias has a focus on fairness and justice (and not all societies are like this) o Male bias with its emphasis on justice  Gilligan (1982) indicates that women place more emphasis on caring and others’ welfare, but evidence of gender bias is mixed Moral Behaviour and Conscience • Moral reasoning doesn’t always lead to moral behaviour • By age 2, children understand that there are rules and feel guilty if they break a known rule (they are developing a sense of conscience) • The development of impulse control is also necessary (and young children don’t always have this) • Conscience is an internal regulatory mechanism that is working even when not observed by adults/others. Freud and Conscience • Freud: Superego (conscience) develops with the resolution of the Oedipal complex (around the age of 4 or 5) • Many critics disagree with Freud but do agree that children internalize their values from their parents, especially if: o There is a positive relationship with the parent o Parents establish clear rules o Discipline is firm, but not harsh Conscience and Temperament • Fearful inhibited children: internalize their parental values more easily and at an earlier age (especially if the parents engage in gentle discipline) • Fearless uninhibited children: whether discipline is gentle or harsh is less important. o What is most important is a secure attachment with warm parents Adolescent’s Search for Identity • Erikson’s psychosocial stage of “identity vs. role confusion” o This identity crisis in adolescence could be resolved positively and lead to a stable sense of identity, OR end negatively, leading to confusion of one’s identity and values • IDENTITY involves: o Our gender, ethnicity, and other attributes that define ourselves o How we view our personal characteristics (eg. if you’re shy or outgoing) o Our goals and values (do you value honesty and hard work?) • Marcia (2002) built on Erikson’s work: o Identity diffusion: The adolescent has not gone through the identity crisis and is not concerned about or committed to any particular values o Foreclosure: The adolescent adopts others values without going through an identity crisis. o Moratorium: The adolescent is in an identity crisis, but has not yet resolved it (they haven’t yet decided on a set of values) o Identity achievement: The adolescent has gone through the identity crisis, has successfully resolved it, and has a coherent set of values. The Adolescent Mind • Greater abstract and hypothetical reasoning comes in adolescence (Piaget’s Formal Operational thinking) • Thinking becomes more flexible (they use both inductive and deductive reasoning) • There is greater processing speed • Working memory becomes more efficient • Better focus and attention • Better able to suppress irrelevant responses (impulse control improves) • *Some teens still continue to struggle with formal thinking The Adolescent Brain • From childhood to adolescence, brain growth slows, but it is still in flux • There are new neural connections • Neural pruning (areas that aren’t used are replaced) • Streamlining of neural networks (allows for better communication between the neurons) • Neural restructuring in the prefrontal cortex and limbic system o This is due to an upsurge in dopamine activity involved in regulating emotional arousal, pleasure, reward, and learning Emotional Changes in Adolescence Study: Larson (2002) studied 328 students aged 10 to 14 to find
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