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Psychology. Lecture 1. September 12.docx

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Psychology. Lecture 1. September 12 What is Psychology? - study of behaviour - study of the mind and brain - thoughts and feelings - cognitive processes - scientific study of the brain and mind and the relationship - memory, consciousness, normal vs. abnormal Over justification: the more we reward for something the less enjoyable it is Social Loafing: exerting more effort when you’re alone Bystander effect: the more people present, the less likely you are to get help Halo effect: more attractive, the better ideas we have of them Psyche: should, spirit, self or life -ology: branch of knowledge Goals: - describe, understand, predict and control Roots - philosophy - natural science Philosophical Perspectives - nativism - knowledge is innate and inherited - hereditary factors - nature - empiricism - knowledge gained through observation and senses - nurture - should only study what you can observe - rationalism - knowledge gained through logic and reasoning Philisophical Influences - Aristotle - empericim - knowledge through experience - john Locke - learn through the environment and senses - empiricist - 'tabua rasa' (blank slate) Natural Sciences - Gall - phrenology - bumps in skull - overdeveloped brain regions - craniscopy - know a person’s personality from the bumps on a skull - localized brain regions for behaviour - Flourens - entire brain worked together to produce general functions - not localized areas - now we know that they are both partly right - Darwin - natural selection - 'survival of the fittest' - strong genes would survive through generations and weak genes would be withered out - nothing special about humans - humans can be studied scientifically - Ivan Sechenov - physiologist - all complex behaviour can be explained through reflexes - not possible - brain and physiology Wilhelm Wundt - 1879*** 1st psych lab - founder of structuralism - break down the mind into basic components - structure and components of consciousness and mind - introspection, stimuli and ask participants to talk about how they feel and what they’re experiencing - subjective (no validation, interpret things differently) - used the same cognitive phenomena cognitive psychologist study today - memory Hermann von Ebbinghaus - first rigorous empirical study of cognitive phenomena -memory of forgetting -nonsense syllabus and present to individual to remember them and then watch how fast they forgot (3 syllabus that do not make word p q i) William James - functionalism - fascinated with darwin - studied 'function or purposes' o consciousness and mental process in adapting to the environment John Watson - rise of behaviorism - empiricist - claim to develop empiricism (Aristotle) - affect of the environment ND the behavior - only study what we can observe - all behaviour is learned - can turn any infant into whatever he wanted by altering the environment Wolfgang Kohler - gestalt psychology - how are elements of experience organized into whole experiences? - the whole is
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