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Psychology 1000 - March 6.docx

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Psychology 1000 Thursday March 6 Lecture 8 Chapter 16 - Disorders Exam: • Covers chapters 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 • Review session: Friday March 7 from 7-10pm o NCB 101 Practice Exam Question: The most durable type of persuasion occurs through the use of: a) The central route to persuasion b) The peripheral route to persuasion c) Having an attractive individual do the persuading d) A highly discrepant message e) Both C and D above Answer: A Practice Exam Question: _________ occurs when group discussion strengthens a group’s dominant initial viewpoint to be even more extreme. a) Social facilitation b) Social loafing c) Group think d) Group polarization e) Obedience Answer: D Outline: I. Biological/Trait Theories II. Learning Theories a. Bandura (Social Cognitive) b. Rotter (Social Learning) III. Psychodynamic Theory a. Freud b. Melanie Kline c. Jung IV. Humanistic Theories a. Rogers (Self theory) b. Maslow (Theory of Self Actualization) 1) Biological/Trait Theories Personality • What is Personality? o A personality trait is a durable disposition to behave in a certain way across situations. o It explains consistency across situations and distinctiveness (individual differences). • A good personality theory: o Explains consistency across situations (but also differences) o Explains individual differences o Is consistent with research findings o Stimulates subsequent research Five Factor Trait Model of Personality (McCrae & Costa, 1985) • Derived using Factor Analysis • They had thousands of people fill out questionnaires on personality traits, and they found all of the traits came under these 5 factors (OCEAN): 1. Agreeableness (being sympathetic and trustworthy) 2. Conscientiousness (constraint) 3. Openness to experience 4. Extraversion (open and sociable, positive emotionality) 5. Neuroticism (negative emotionality) • These 5 factors are similar cross-culturally • Genetic contribution: o There is an estimate that personality traits are about 50% heritable Cattell’s 16 Factors of Personality • Cattell proposed that these 16 factors were on a continuum (eg. reserved at one end and outgoing on the other) • Each pair was on either end of the continuum Higher-Order Trait Theory (Hans Eysenck) • 2 Traits on a Continuum: 1. Stable vs. Unstable  Similar to Big 5’s neuroticism 2. Introverted vs. Extroverted • *He was later criticised because it didn’t allow for thought processes, so he later added psychoticism • He suggested that personality was linked to the nervous system (there was a biological basis for personality) 1) Deviations from “optimal level of arousal” • Introverts are chronically over aroused (seek out less stimulation) • Extroverts are chronically under aroused (seek out stimulation) 2) Suddenness of shifts in arousal • Neurotic (Emotionally Unstable) o Sudden shifts in arousal • Emotionally stable o Gradual shifts in arousal Other Personality Dimensions • Type A vs. Type B o Type A – agreeable, ambitious, cautious, competitive, honest, hostile, striving o Type B – calm, easy going, less success driven o One alarming finding is that Type A personality is related to heart disease  *It is the ‘hostility’ component that is specifically related to an increased risk to heart disease (not necessarily that someone is Type A) • Orientation o Optimism – view themselves, their lives, their future, and others in a positive hopeful manner  Tends to be consistent across situations  Related to higher levels of self-esteem and an internal locus of control (feeling like you have control over the outcome) o Pessimism – view themselves, their lives, their future, and others in a negative manner Evaluation of Biological/Trait Theories • Strengths o Convincing evidence for genetic influence o Integrates personality with biological factors (few of the other theories do this) o Accounts for cross-cultural similarities • Limitations o Difficulties in explaining inconsistencies in behaviour o Ignores environmental factors (stresses nature over nurture) o There is no comprehensive biological theory (no theory that talks about how these traits develop) 2) Learning Theories Personality develops as a result of past learning experiences forming responses and habits that tend to persist over time. • Radical Behaviorists view personality as a collection of “response tendencies” o They ignore internal factors (such as thinking) o eg. they would stay for every stimulus situation (such as a large party), there are a number of responses you could engage in (you could circulate and speak to others if they approach you first, stick close to the people you already know, politely withdraw, or leave at the first opportunity) • Evaluation of Earlier Learning Theories o Strengths  Based on rigorous research  Insights into effects of learning and environmental factors (nurture rather than nature) o Limitations  Over-dependence on animal research (true of most behavioural research)  Fragmented view of personality  Dehumanizing views Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory • Through observational learning we acquire new concepts, information, and behaviour through exposure to others and the consequences of others’ behaviour. • Cognitive factors (beliefs, goals, and expectations) are important in terms of our behaviour • Self-efficacy: A person’s judgements or beliefs about their ability to perform in certain situations o You could have high self-efficacy about your skills as a football player, but low self-efficacy about your ability to fix a computer • Self-reinforcement: We are capable of rewarding ourselves for a desired behaviour to motivate oneself to complete a task o eg. you may tell yourself that after a long day of studying, you will go out to celebrate that night Rotter’s Expectancy-Value Model 1. Expectancies about the potential outcomes associated with a given theory • Example: Locus of Control o Internal – individual believes that they have control over their outcomes o External – individual believes that external factors control outcomes 2. Reinforcement Model – the degree to which an individual values a given outcome Both combine to determine behaviour. 3) Psychodynamic Theory Sigmund Freud  A physician from Vienna  Treated upper class women with “hysteria” (anxiety with paralysis)  Studied hypnosis under Charcot  Freud learned the importance of unconscious processes and symptoms Components of Personality motivate behaviour:  ID o Instinctive impulses o Eros – sexual o Thanatos – aggressive o *Operates according to the pleasure principle (no delay of gratification  EGO o Mediates between the id and the superego o “Ego strength” (ego’s ability to function despite these duelling forces) o Operates according to the reality principle  SUPEREGO o Our sense of right and wrong (morality) *View Freud’s Psychosexual Stages in Text Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory  Intrapsychic conflict (between id, ego, and superego)  anxiety  reliance on defense mechanisms  Repression – The ego uses energy to prevent anxiety-arousing impulses from entering consciousness  Defense Mechanisms – allow the expression of impulses in disguised form o Table 12.2 in text Evaluation of Freud’s Psychodynamic Theories  Strengths o Stressed the importance of early experiences (he was one of the first to do this) o Inspired a great deal of research o Development of psychological treatments (still applicable today in clinical settings – there are still therapists who use psychoanalysis)  Limitations o He has a negative view of human nature that is dehumanizing o The theory is difficult to test or evaluate (many of the terms are difficult to define) o He has been criticized as being sexist Neo-Freudians  Melanie Klein: Object Relations Theory o Schemas (or images/mental representations of self and others) are formed early in life through experiences with caregivers  Act as lenses or models for later relationships  Our expectations shape interpersonal relationships o She was more focused on the ego and attachment relationships (unlike Freud she wasn’t interested in the unconscious)  Carl Jung (1875-1961) o Considered Freud’s prodigy, but he came up with a lot of his theories before meeting Freud o Ego: The conscious mind o Personal unconscious: Houses the individual’s own experiences  *Contents are unique to each individual o Collective unconscious: Unconscious ideas and images are shared by all humans  Used dream analysis to access the contents of the unconscious o Archetypes: A universal idea, image, pattern, or a universal thought form or predisposition to perceive the world in certain ways  Stored in the collective unconscious  He believed that this is what connected human beings  Anima – the personification of all feminine psychological tendencies within a man  Animus – the personification of all masculine psychological tendencies within a woman  He said that the mother archetype was loving and nurturing while the father archetype was logical and rational  Types of Archetypes: • Shadow – dark negative aspects o Similar to Freud’s id • Hero – someone who fights for what is good and just • Maiden – someone who is innocent, naïve, and gentle • Persona – mask or public self presented to others o More conscious than unconscious • The Self: guides the process of individuation and is the regulating centre of the personality o The self archetype is the goal of development, an archetype that represents the transcendence of all opposites so that every aspect of personality is expressed equally. o
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