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Erotica, porn, and behaviour a critical review.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Semester
Fall

Description
Erotica, porn, and behaviour; a critical review January-16-13 7:14 PM • Distinction between two variations of sexually explicit material. The research has been high-jacked by political correctness. Presenting two sides to a story. Sexual representations are not new • Museum- will find exaggerated male and female figures that may be relevant to fertility and eroticism. Disney channel- paintings of animals- not seeing the earliest ones of stick figures of pre-historic males and females copulating- not appropriate. Humans have been enjoying and producing sexual imagery since the beginning of records • Quote- our generation isn't the first to produce and consume sexual images. Emphasize that not only does imagery utilize cutting edge technology, it often drives it and increases its popularity. Sexual representations not only utilize cutting edge technology, they drive it • Emphasize that photography benefitted from a kick start of the US civil war and dirty photographs on post card- fuelled photography business • Colour photography use fuelled- naked Marylyn Monroe in colour • 10 or 15 years ago, two competing formats- videotape and VHS. Then came deep throat and the devil in miss jones on VHS and beta format tapes were history. Erotic imagery utilizes and drives cutting edge technology • Argues that internet was driven for the sake of the erotic imagery it conveys • Consumer electronic industry produced means for communication 3D porn Sexual science and porn • Its everywhere. Porn represents 8 billion dollar a year … 1988. • Last year and this year, Hyde textbook says its gone up to 12 billion a year in US alone. • Sexual science doesn’t differentiate between erotic and pornographic, but concludes that its everywhere • Availability has skyrocketed in internet era. If you like to produce post or read porn material, the internet is your home. If you like heterosexual images, gay male imagery, lesbian- internet. • There is a great amount of armature sexual media. Alternate universe where people are copulating all the time. If you know how to use Google and put in the word porn, can find it very easily with a wide variety. • We are told that it is not only everywhere, and getting more violent and prevalent, it is also dangerous. We read that exposure to both violent and non violent effects both aggressive attitudes and behaviours towards women. Psychological theories • Observational learning theory tells us that we acquire potential behaviour from models. We not only acquire patterns of behaviour, but expectationf for outcomes. Sexual models appear in diversity of potential behaviours in porn and erotic media. • Pair stimulus with arousal and the stimulus will cause arousal. • Script- people follow detailed step by step sexual scripts- generally learned by implications. We learn it from indirect models. We might be concerned that there is little countervailing info to correct scripts based on porn How often do you surf.. • 67% of males log on a couple times a week or daily. Women much less often log onto erotic or porn websites. There is an element that most images are made for men. Don’t confuse the fact that browsing patterns are not the same as arousal patterns. Shouldn’t be taken to mean that arousal responses are in a major way different. Social psychological theories relevant to possible effects of porn • Reasons why psychologists might be interested in effects of porn. Observational learning theory tells us when we observe models, we are acquiring potential patterns of behaviour. Social learning- we also learn to expect positive or negative outcomes of the behaviour. Violent may teach people to be violent against women with few punishments. • Classical conditioning- pairing with stimulus with arousal- stimulus acquires ability to elicit arousal. The site of naked bodies arouses you, and the BDSM that didn’t have the ability to arouse you now does • Script- what if we learn that when women say no its actually yes? Scary. Sexual science conclusions about the prevalence and effects of porn • Any sexual media and all is dangerous. Its everywhere and every kind is dangerous and provokes bad attitudes and behaviour What is porn? • Least useful but most colourful definition- came out of the US supreme court- as far as obscenity goes… he means that when he is aroused and disgusted by something, that is porn. This isn't a good definition. Cant define it, but he knows it when he sees it. US supreme court • Obscenity must appeal to prurient interests- has to be arousing. It also has to offend contemporary standards- we might ask, which community (times square new york or a small religious community) how do you not offend community standards in large nations like the US and Canada? There are still groups that protest advertisements about tampons- so we are easily offending some people. Lets say that he produced a picture of sexual torture of 3 year old. Doesn’t arouse anyone in this room. Lets say that what is in textbook would be horribly offensive in certain communities in Canada. Obscenity has to be utterly without redeeming social value- difficult to judge. Even the worst porn may have redeeming social value, and much porn is not arousing. Criminal code of Canada • Exploitation means to turn a profit. • Classic sex show and textbook would be obscenity • Incidentally Canadian courts- deciding factor is based really on whether or not the court can make the case that some obscene material is likely to cause harm to individuals or to the public. Child porn • Distinct definition, under the age of 18 or depicted as being under that age. Engaging in sexual activity or shows genitals. • The production of porn or erotica with children is criminal offence that involves abuse and sexual exploitation of a child that cant consent • Sometimes nagged by depictions in children in sexual contact but don’t involve a living human child. • Sexting- very often involves people under the age of 18. Defining porn ; psychological conceptualizations • Smart distinction between erotic and porn • Feminists finally realized that it is the content of a sexually explicit medium that is probably going to drive its pro-social, antisocial or neutral impact. Erotica and porn- erotica portrays and endorses sexual activity that is consensual and non- coercive. Erotica is an advertisement for sex, but not coercive consensual sexual activity • In contrast, porn- usually involving sexual force employed by men on women • Erotica and porn as advertisements or scripts in one case for consensual, and another case for force Defining Pornography: Emotional Definitions of Obscenity • Told that conditioned and unconditioned stimuli trigger emotional responses and evaluations that explain to us and to the world why the stimulus makes us feel the way it does • It is emotional (affective). • Erotic video with male and female having intercourse in various positions. In one case, they were from Denmark. Then to another batch, he introduced the film as coming to police because male and female were siblings. In that case, detention. In the first instance people rated it as educational, non porn and stimulating. In the second it was rated as highly pornographic and restrictions on access. • People will make judgements based on how it makes them feel (as to whether its porn or not) Defining porn; emotional definitions of obscenity • Gave legal definitions, then showed 19 slides ranging from nudity to homo and hetero intercourse. Asked the men and women to rate how the slides made them feel, and asked whether they were porn or not, obscene or not obscene in relation to the definition. • Men who experiences high negative affect- nauseated, angry annoyed. As well as high levels of positive effect, rated 10.5/19 to be porn. Typically that which arouses and disgusts us it judged to be pornographic. • The same men that experienced low negative affect and high positive rated 1/19 to be pornographic based on how it made them feel. 10 fold difference • Women were more directly influenced by negative affect, regardless of positive affect. They judged about half to be pornographic. Defining porn; consequences of labeling • difference in reactions to people who viewed erotic movie and called it non or pornographic. Negative reactions were characteristic of people who had a punishing and restricting sexual upbringing and negative attitudes to sex. Negative attitude to film and sex were strongly correlated with the tendency to evaluate the film as pornographic. In the following week, showed increases in the source of sexual behaviours they had experience with. Turned out they had shown increase in sexual behaviour following exposure to erotic video • Liberal people responded with low levels of affect. Non porn (they called it) and didn’t change sexual behaviour in the next week. Defining porn; psychological conceptualizations • Feminist definitions that distinguish a difference between erotica and porn • Resonates to psychologist because it is almost certainly the content of media that has something to do with its consequences • Erotic- advertisement for consensual, non violent sexual activity. • Porn in the few of some feminists are advertisements selling a script for sexual coercion. Effects of erotica on behaviour • Responsible for recruiting most presently active researchers produced 10 volumes of research on the impact of exposure to sexually explicit material- consensual erotica mostly. • Exposure to consensual erotica, leads to small short term non novel increases in sexual behaviour. Small increases- a certain fraction of people exposed will be affected in the way that influences sexual behaviour. Will be short term- a day or two days, and will be limited exclusively to same old stuff that you are used to doing • If an erotic film is shown with vasocongenstive interactions in this room tonight, a proportion of us (maybe 25%) and show an increased likelihood of doing exactly what we do when sexually active. • The changes would be non-novel, short term, and limited to a small amount of the people viewing it Long term exposure to erotica • We have random assignment of married couples. Randomized them0 sets everyone equal • Some of them were randomize to see erotic movies, and some to see travelogues (neutral) • On the average movie night, the couples who saw erotic film- about 67% of them went home and had sex in usual fashion • The effects disappeared on non-movie nights of the week • During week two, they came back to the university and shown the same movie- nothing happened. During week3, the experimenter had new film- the short term non novel increase in patterns of sexual intercourse occurred on the movie nigh and disappeared on non movie night. Then they showed same movie and nothing happened again Part of the increase in sexual activity was associated with getting a babysitter. Neutral movies- small but significant increase in intercourse- because going out and watching a movie was associated with increase in intimacy After exposure toe erotica • 82-96% really didn’t do anything that they didn’t usually do • A small proportion of audience for erotic- engaged in increases of usual behaviour • Produced serious of erotic films (ken and Barbie films). They scripted the film to have novel, but non stigmatized activities. Novel things done that weren't earth shattering. • Exposed the couples to these stimulus and they questioned couples as to whether they had done any of the activities. • 3 days later, people broke into labs and stole the videos. • Impulse and fear behind erotica agenda being based on monkey see monkey do, the monkey doesn’t seem to be doing. Gender differences in arousal response in erotica? • Text- men higher arousal, and especially strong among undergraduates and weaker as people get older • They are wrong! • Early example from US presidents commission • In one of the studies, married subjects were shown erotic slides, 1/3 people reacted and told them how aroused they were. 1/3 read text depictions of what was going on in the slide (short erotic passage). 1/3- control group, they just said close your eyes and imagine whatever was depicted and going on in the slide • Discovered that the brain is the largest sexual organ in the body • In every case, women and men showed equivalent responses to erotic stimuli- no gender specific • Only about 1/6 women is as capable of being aroused by stimulus than the average men (prof read this). Did a study to test this Post-exposure sexual arousal to an erotic movie… • Watched movie and told them how aroused they were, asked whether they had erections, etc. • Physiological and subjective self reports in men and women • Prof got feedback that his results were impossible • When women are watching the materials, they are perceiving romance and affection in partners. Men are perceiving the physical aspects • Paper wasn’t published Post-exposure sexual arousal by gender of participant an erotic theme • Provide background info what was going to happen in movie (movie from Denmark) • 1/3 people in same room in same movie got background info that they were young married couple and eager to express affection for eachother • 1/3 people got background info about people that met eachother at a bar and went home for hard sex • 1/3 - lust theme. It was described as a prostitute and a client engaging in sex on commercial basis • Found no sex differences • Found a difference that married men and women most turned on by casual sex- weren't very aroused by love or prostitute • Women were slightly more turned on than men • Paper was published 'Category specificity' • Part of the story is a story of erotic stimuli triggering to engage in short term non novel increases • part of the story is equivocal sex difference, but no sex differences in arousal • Another part of the story is the story of category specificity • Means that if you are category specific- like most men. Will be aroused by male-female erotica but not aroused by male-male if hetero • Category non specific- turned on by everything regardless of particular characteristics of the stimulus • Subjective self reported arousal and genital measure arousal. • Category specificity in women- neutral stimuli aren't very aroused. Chimps having se with eachother- weren't aroused. Most aroused were female-male for hetero. Male-male and female-female somewhat arousing but clear distinction. • In the case of men, neutral stimuli, monkey sex, male-male for hetero, not arousing. Female-male and female-female very arousing. Pattern of category specificity. • Everyone in this study was heterosexual. • This is subjective self reported- under a bit of conscious control • Also measure physiological response of blood flow to pelvic region- story was different. Women's arousal seemed to be automatically triggered by almost any sexual que. Bonobo- significant increase to neutral stimuli as well. • Males remained category specific- differences were a little smaller Gut feelings: there are gender.. • Seem to be few consistent differences in arousal to erotica, and seem to be category specificity differences and women to men • Another level of response- affect (emotion) • There are reliable sex differences here. In affective responses to erotica • When you put men and women in encounter exposing to consensual activity in videotape, men have more positive affect, and women more negative • Distinctive affect responses to erotica in groups of men and women- not for all men and all women • Affect is independent from arousal. People can be aroused and disgusted. Two separate processes. Effects of erotica • Erotica leads to small short term increases in sexual behaviour
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