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Psychology 1000

o Criticized for overemphasizing innate biological factors at expense of cultural and social learning factors in explaining complex human social behaviour Behaviour Genetics • Study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors • Animals can be bred not only for physical, but also behavioural traits (aggression, intelligence, etc.) • Identical twins, with identical genetic makeup, are very similar in behaviour compared to fraternal twins o Found even when identical twins reared in different homes The Cognitive Perspective • Views humans as information processors and problem solvers whose actions are governed by thought and planning. What sets humans apart is that we have mental capabilities. o Studies how mental processes influence our motives, emotions, and behaviour • Several schools and individuals contributed to modern cognitive perspective: o Structuralism  Analysis of mind in terms of its basic elements  Studied sensations through introspection (“looking within”) Patients were exposed to stimuli and asked to explain their experiences.  Wilhelm Wundt wanted to model study of the mind after physical and biological sciences. Believed mind could be studied via breaking it down to its basic parts, this was called structuralism. Believed sensations were basic elements of consciousness. • Founded first laboratory of experimental psychology in 1879 o Functionalism  Psychology should study the functions of consciousness (the “why’s) rather than its structure- (the What’s)  Influenced partly by Darwin’s evolutionary theory (adaption to succeed)  William James broad functionalist approach helped widen the scope of psychology to include biological/mental processes and behaviour o Gestalt Psychology
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