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Lecture 5

Psych Lecture 5 September 26th.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Semester
Winter

Description
Psych Lecture September 26th, 2013 Biological Foundations • More research design • The neuron • Action potential What are sources of bias in an experiment? What is the basic structure of a neuron? How do neurons “work”? Next Time: The Synapse. Scan: 73-78 Research methods • Observation • Survey • Case study • Correlation • Experiments o Between – groups design (more costly, but more effective)  Example: TV vs. aggression. Group 1 watches a violent show and then measure aggression with that group. Group 2 watches non-violent show and then measure aggression. Aggression = dependent variable because it never changes. Violent show = independent variable because it is being manipulated. Group 3 could be a control group to see how people act before called “No treatment control” o Within – groups design  Example: all subjects exposed to all conditions.  All watch violent show -> measure aggression. All watch non-violent show -> measure aggression. Problem? Watching violent show first could spike aggression.  Potential order effect needs to be counterbalanced. Measuring aggression • Self-report • Verbal attack • Physical attack – shock test; able to shock the person who attacked you from low shock to high shock. • “safe” attack – bobo doll test Threats to Validity • Internal Validity o Degree to which experiment supports casual conclusion (whether it was confounded or not) • External Validity o Degree to which the results can be generalized (if you only test males, can’t put results on females) • Demand Characteristics o Cues in experiment convey hypothesis to participants o They “help” experimenter once they find out what the study is about o Geen & Berkowitz (1967) – if you frustrate somebody and then allow them to beat somebody up. If there is a weapon present in the room, people become more aggressive by just seeing a weapon. • Experimenter Expectancy o Experiments “conveys” hypothesis to participants. A subtle hint to participants about what you’re expecting from the experiment. o Intons-Peterson (1983) – being given a map and asking to give a distance. Giving the participant the map to use during experiment, or having to imagine the distance. Experimenter told them that perception would give better results, some were told that being able to see the map would give them better results. Whichever you were told you would do better in, the results showed they actually did better in that one. o Being able to eliminate this with double-blinded experiment. F
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