Psych lecture September 24, 2013
• More study tips
• Scientific method
• Research design
How do we validate claims?
How do you design an experiment?
What are the advantages of the experimental method?
Next Time: Methods + Bio bases. Scan: Chapter 2 pages 69-75
• Talked again about the 1$ vs. 20$ lying scheme.
o Festinger (1957) talked about cognitive Dissonance.
Steps in the Scientific Process
• Initial observation/question
• Form hypothesis
o Tentative explanation or prediction about some phenomenon
o Gather clues and logically analyze them
• Test hypothesis
o Conduct research, gather evidence
• Analyze data
o Analyze information and draw tentative conclusion, determine the truth
• Further research and theory building
o Theory: Set of formal statements that explain how and why certain events
are related to one another
• New hypothesis derived from theory
o Theory used to develop new hypotheses, which are then tested by
conducting additional research and gathering evidence
o Allows for self-correcting theories
1. Identifying the Problem
a. Hypothesis: tentative statement about a relationship between two or more things
i. Theory: collection of hypothesis, organizing system, more general,
a. Social learning theory: humans copy what other humans
do because they believe it will be rewarding, especially if
they are a high status individual.
b. Good theories generate good testable hypothesises
(theory of relativity) Compare Freudian theory vs. behavior
theory. Behavior theory is testable because it’s
observational whereas Freudian theory is all mental
2. Design and Execute Experiment
o KNOW HOW TO I