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Psychology think and intelligence February 4.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Prof
Semester
Winter

Description
Thinking and Intelligence February 4, 2014 When we think of thinking – which psychological perspective might we MOST think it  to? ­ Behavioural views ­ Sociocultural views ­ Cognitive views Thought: Elements of Cognition Concepts • A mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or  qualities having common properties. • Basic concepts: concepts tat have a moderate number of instances and that are  easier to acquire than those having few or many instances. • Prototype: an especially representative example of a concept. • Proposition: A unit of meaning that is made up of concepts and expresses a single  idea. • Cognitive schemas: Integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and  expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world • Mental images: Mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it  represents (occur in most sensory modalities)  How Conscious is Thought? Subconscious processes • Mental processes occurring outside of conscious awareness but accessible to  consciousness when necessary (e.g., driving a car) Nonconscious processes • Mental processes occurring outside of and not available to conscious awareness  (e.g., getting the milk out of the fridge). Types of Nonconscious Processes Implicit Learning • Learning that occurs when you acquire knowledge about something without being  aware of how you did so and without being able to state exactly what it is you  have learned. Mindlessness • Mental inflexibility, inertia and obliviousness to the present context. Reasoning Rationally Reasoning: Drawing conclusions or inferences from observations, facts, or assumptions. Formal reasoning problems: problems solved using established methods (algorithms  and logic) usually a single correct solution. Informal reasoning problems:  there is often no clearly correct solution. Deductive Reasoning  • When a conclusion follows necessarily from certain premises • If premises true, conclusion must be true Examples: ­ all men are mortal. Joe is a man. Therefore Joe is mortal.  ­ Bachelor’s are unmarried men. Bill is unmarried. Therefor
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