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Psychology full notes.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Psychology languageoturning thoughts into wordsproperties of languageosymbolic and structuredoconveys meaningogenerative and permits displacementphonemesmorphemeswordsphrasessentencesphonemesosmallest speech units40 in the English languagemorphemesosmallest unit of meaning50000 in the English languageIncludes root words prefixes suffices etcsemantics omeaning of words and word combinationssyntaxosystem of rules for arranging words into sentencesdiffer by languageOrder of learning throughout life1 Phonemes2 Morphemes3 Semantics4 Syntaxbottomup processing in language processingorecognizing sounds and letter that combine to form words and sentencesex sounding out a new wordtopdown processing in language processing olanguage is interpreted in terms of knowledge and expectationif someone said he went to the movies too at two oclock listeners will interpret the correct homonympragmaticsoknowledge of practical aspects of language and social ruleslanguage is localized in the left hemisphere of the temporal lobebrain functions for languageomotor cortexspeaking wordsuse of speech is a motor movementofrontal lobegenerating wordsooccipital lobereadingseeing wordsoauditory lobehearing languageoBrocas aphasiaimpaired ability to produce languageoWernickes Aphasiaimpaired ability to comprehend languageinitial vocalizations are similar across languages crying cooing babbling etcDevelopmental language milestones6 monthsobabbling sounds begin to resemble surrounding language1 year sto1 wordsimilar crossculturallyusually words for parents dada mamaReceptive understanding VS Expressive speaking languageeasier to understand than speak it152 years ovocabulary spurtfast mapping the ability to learn a lot of new things quicklyover and under extensionsover extensionsword has a general meaning ex hat means anything you put on your headunder extensionsjargon used to define specific things ex baba means my bottle 2 years ocombining wordsinclude telegraphic speech ex want cookieobegin to have and increase the mean length of utterancenumber of morphemes that children say3 yearsocomplex ideasoplural and past tenseosimple math equations ex additionbilingualismoadvantagehigher scores on cognitive flexibility analytical reasoning selective attention and metalinguistic awarenessgreater acculturation adoption of beliefs and behaviours of another groupodisadvantagesmaller vocabularies in one languageslower language processing speedndoresearchers found that 2 language is learn at a critical period in early lifeTheories of language acquisitionbehaviourist BF Skinnerolearning of specific verbal responsesnativist Noam Chomskyopeople are biologically equipped to learn the rules of language
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