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Chapters 12,13,14,15.docx

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Psychology 1000
Ross Esson

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Chapter 12- Personality Personality: distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling and acting that characterize a persons responses to life situations o Components of identity that distinguish them o Behaviours are viewed as being caused primarily by internal rather than environmental factors o Behaviours seem to fit together, suggesting an inner personality Personality theories: o Psychodynamic (Freud): unconscious drives, early experiences o Humanistic (Maslow, Rogers): humans have a drive towards self-improvement o Social-cognitive (Bandura, Rotters): consequences of our behaviour, and our perception of the consequences The Psychodynamic Perspective Looking for the causes of behaviour in an interplay of inner forces, and unconscious determinants Freud (1856-1939): awarded a fellowship to study with French neurologist Jean Charcot o Treated patients with conversion hysteria (physical symptoms appear suddenly with no apparent cause) o Freud thought it was due to repressed painful memories, and after patients were able to re-experience the memories, they showed improvement Freud began to experiment with techniques to access the unconscious mind: hypnosis, free association, dream analysis he suffered severe depression, so self-analysed his own dreams Instinctual drives generate psychic energy, which powers the mind and constantly presses for direct or indirect release Conscious, preconscious, and unconscious Id: exists within the unconscious mind the only structure present at birth, the source of psychic energy o No direct contact with reality, totally irrational behaviour o Operates according to the pleasure principle, seeks immediate gratification Ego: conscious level, reality principle tests reality to decide when the id can safely discharge its impulses Superego: moral arm developed by age 4 or 5, repository for the values and ideals of society o Allows for self-control to take over from the external controls of rewards and punishments o Strives to control instincts of the id: tries to block it completely, while the ego tries to block it until there is a safe outlet o Moralistic goals take precedence over realistic ones Ego must now achieve compromise between the demands of the id, the constraints of the superego, and reality ego cannot always control id, which leads to conflict and anxiety Observable behaviour is often a compromise between motives, needs and impulses defence mechanisms arise when strategies are ineffective at reducing anxiety o Repression: ego keeps a lid on the id ego prevents anxiety-arousing memories, remain in the unconscious, but may be expressed indirectly o Sublimation: memories are channelled into socially desirable behaviour, masking the underlying impulses o Denial: refusal to acknowledge the situation o Displacement: finding a safe target to outlet on o Projection: an unacceptable impulse is repressed and then projected onto another person (sometimes seen in therapy) o Rationalization: you construct a false, but reasonable explanation for an event that already occurred Excessive reliance on these defence mechanisms was a primary cause of dysfunctional behaviour Freud: personality is powerfully moulded by experiences in the first years of life Psychosexual Stages where the id is focussed on a specific erogenous zone o If there is excessive or inadequate gratification at a particular stage, fixation at that stage occurs, and adult personality is affected o Oral: 0-2 o Latency: 7- puberty o Anal: 2-3 o Genital: puberty onwards o Phallic: 4-6 Freuds most infamous stage was the Phallic Stage o Oedipal crisis: move from sexual attachment to opposite parent to identify with same- sex parent o Castration anxiety: all boys are afraid that someone will cut off their penis o Penis envy: every girl wants a penis Freud tested his theories through case studies and clinical observations (not experiments) o Psychoanalytic theory has often been criticized on scientific grounds, because it is often hard to test o For example, his theories of development were not based on observing children o Hysterical women in Vienna not representative Reaction formation: producing exaggerated behaviours that are the opposite of the impulse Neoanalysts: through Freud didnt give social and cultural factors a sufficiently important role, thought he stressed infantile sexuality too much, also believes that personality develops over a lifespan o Alfred Adler: humans are inherently social beings who are motivated by social interest striving for superiority: drives people to compensate for real or imagined defects in themselves (inferiority complex), and strive to be more competent in life o Carl Jung: theory of analytic psychology: people have a personal unconscious based on life experiences, a collective unconscious that consists of memories of the human race Object relations: focus on the images or mental representations that people form of themselves of others as a result of early experience with caregivers exert an unconscious influence on a persons relationships throughout life The Humanistic Perspective Individuals have creative potential and an inborn striving for self-actualization a reaction to Freuds ideas Maslows Hierarchy of Needs: once basic needs have been satisfied, people seek psychological needs and growth Carl Rogers Self Theory: behaviour is a response to our immediate conscious experience of self and environment o The forces that direct behaviour are within us and when they are not distorted or blocked by the environment, they can be trusted to direct us to self-actualization Self-concept develops in response to life experience tendency to maintain it, have needs for self-consistency and congruence Threat: when experience is inconsistent with self-concept o Healthy adjustment: individuals modify self-concept o Maladjustment: individuals distort reality To preserve their self-image, people behave in ways that will lead others to respond to them in a self-confirming fashion The degree of congruence between self-concept and experience helps define ones level of adjustment Inflexible = less open = maladjusted Need for positive regard: acceptance, sympathy, love from others o Unconditional positive regard: communicates to a child that they are inherently worthy of love o Conditional positive regard: dependent on behaviour, creates conditions of worth (when we approve or disapprove of ourselves) Fully functioning persons do not hide/adopt artificial roles, are fairly free of conditions of worth Self-esteem is an important aspect of well-being, happiness, and adjustment o Children develop higher self-esteem when their parents communicate unconditional acceptance, establish clear guidelines for behaviour, give child freedom to make decisions and express opinions. These children are less susceptible to social pressure, fewer interpersonal problems, high achievement Self-verification: people are motivated to preserve their self-concept by maintaining self- consistency and congruence people have a tendency to seek out self-confirming relationships Self-enhancement: tendency to gain and preserve a positive self-image positive illusions Culture provides a learning context in which the self develops o Collectivist = achievement of group goals is most important o Individualist = independence/ personal attainment Gender schemas: organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviours that are appropriate and expected for males and females Psychotherapy may help a client to be more self-accepting, realistic Trait and Biological Perspectives Describe the basic classes of behaviour that define personality Cattells 16 Personality Factors: 16PF, used to measure individual differences on each of the dimensions o The dictionary identifies 18000 personality descriptors, Cattell narrowed this to 170 o Had subjects rate themselves on each one, and used factor analysis to group them derived 16 source traits each person can be placed at some point along a continuum Esyencks Extraversion-Stability Model: knowing how introverted a person is tells nothing about their stability o Later added a third dimension, psychoticism- self-control The 5-Factor Model: the 5 factors are universal to the human species o Openness o Agreeableness o Conscientiousness o Neuroticism o Extroversion Trait theorists try to predict real-lif
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