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Chapter 9 Lecture

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 9: Lecture Intelligence I - How do you measure intelligence? - Are IQ tests biased? - What is Savant Syndrome? - What is intelligence? Intelligence? - a host of abilities (memory, creativity, etc…) - What a test measures - Can be misleading - Several studies indicate unschooled people in remote villages can’t solve syllogisms - Suggest preliterate people don’t (or can’t) use logical analysis Scribner (1977) - All Kpelle men are rice farmers, Mr. Smith isn’t. Is he a Kpelle man? - Ecological approach Psychometric Approach Galton (1869) - Looked at relatives of intelligent people - Starts research program to identify those with low ability - Measure simple motor and sensory abilities (rxn time) - Believes intelligence was unitary (mental quickness); genetic - Develops Correlation Coefficient - Results disappointing Binet - request from French gov.t (public school mandatory) - Believe intelligence was “a collection of higher-order abilities”; learned - No correlation - Ability result from learning Binet and Simon (1900s) - develop a test tapping a number of abilities (memory, match etc…) - Correlate scores with teacher personal ratings - Criterion validity (take score and match to criterion that is important) Chapter 9: Lecture 1905-1908 - tests revised and concept of mental age introduced - Standardize test - Get age norms (mean performance) - Assign new test score to mental age group according to norms - If child performs @ level of average 5 year old; MA = 5 Terman and Stern - Adapts Binet scale for use in the USA while @ Stanford - Stanford-Binet widely used Stanford-Binet Items - 2 - 2 ½: insert blocks into formboard - 6: define words (i.e. Envelope) - IQ = MA/CA x 100 * - 10 but scores at average of a 12 year old; 120 IQ - Cant calculate the same way with older ages - Use deviation IQ (z-score) from normal curve - 1 68%; 2 82% - Mean 100 SD 15 (normal in WAIS) Reliability: consistency of measurement - Test-Reset reliability good for Stanford-Binet and WAIS-III - R = .8 - .95 very reliable Validity: does test measure what it’s supposed to do? - r = .3 - .7 - IQ isn’t predictive of ability to achieve Bias - Is the test “culture-fair” or do the answers require specific knowledge available only to certain (sub) cultures - More than “academic” question - Streaming Dove (1968) “Chitterling test” - test is bias and requires specific knowledge Chapter 9: Lecture - Only available to people living in the southern united states - culture-fair tests - Raven’s Matrices; look for logical reasoning rather than knowledge ______________________________________________________________________ Savant Syndrome Dr. J.L. Down (1887) “Idiot Savant” - “idiot” was a category of mental retardation (IQ< 25) - excel in narrow range abilities - Fast math - Music - Calendar calculations - Art - Mechanical or spatial abilities - Time estimation - Sensory discrimination - ESP - Common: music + blind + autistic - Can have multiple skills; all seem to be R hemisphere and linked with phenomenal (but narrow) memory - Very rare; less than 100 reports and only 25 living - 6x more likely in males than in females Causes 1. Eidetic Imaging - Perhaps savants have “photographic” memory (unlikely)
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