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Material from Lectures not in Text.docx

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Psychology 1000
Mark Cole

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Material from LecturesBiological MotivationVentromedial Hypothalamus VMHIn 1940 Hetherington and Ransom lesioned the VMH in rats this led to hyperphagia overeatingRats gained 3x their normal weight then stopped gainingWere the rats extremely hungry No they were a lazy eaters and b finicky eaters they simply could not stop eatingThe microelectrode was also sued to stimulate the VMH in ratsEven hungry rats became aphagic unable to swallowTherefore the VMH must be a satiation centerLateral Hypothalamus LHIn 1951 Anand and Brobeck lesioned the LH in rats and they became aphagicThey also stimulated the LH in rats and even satiated rats restarted eatingTherefore the LH must be an excitatory center for hunger and eatingSummary of Hypothalamic RolesVMH associated with satiety o Destructionhyperphagia o StimulationaphagiaLH associated with hunger o Destructionaphagia o StimulationhyperphagiaHowever this view of the LH and VMH is slightly simplisticFibers that are near the hypothalamus are inevitably damaged when the hypothalamus is lesionedThese fibers connect to the paraventricular nucleus PVNcould this be the real hunger centerThe PVN releases neuropeptide Y which stimulates hungerMemory The biology of sensory shortterm and longterm memorySensory memory takes place in the primary cortex associated with the sense that the info is being presented inShortterm memory is associated with the frontal lobe esp prefrontal cortex left prefrontal cortex associated with deep encoding salient encoding associated with right prefrontal cortexLongterm memory is involved with various areas of the brain declarative facts is tied to the hippocampus thalamus also involved damageamnesia amygdala associated with memory of emotional events damagenot recall of those memories procedural riding bike longterm memory involves the cerebellum and conditioned responsesSensory neurons form more transmitter sites and motor neurons form more receptor sites during memory formationMakes for more efficient synaptic change and more memory formationLongterm potentiation electrical stimulation of hippocampus pathways strengthens themPostsynaptic neurons become more receptive to neurotransmitters leads to memory consolidation
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