Class Notes (836,563)
Canada (509,855)
Psychology (6,258)
Psychology 1000 (2,472)
Terry Biggs (155)

Reasoning and Problem Solving.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Reasoning and Problem Solving Mental Representations • Mental representations take variety of forms including: – Images – Ideas – Concepts – Principles Cognition • Cognition consists of the re-organization and manipulation of mental representations in a goal directed manner • There are two major forms of reasoning we may employ in this process: • 1 Deductive. 2 Inductive • Deductive Reasoning • Reason from general principles to a conclusion • Useful process in forming hypotheses • Inductive Reasoning • Start with specific facts and try to develop a general principle • Stumbling Blocks in Reasoning • Distraction by irrelevant information • Failure to apply deductive rules • Belief bias • Mental set -Approach most problem from same starting point - Set to solve a problem the same as successful problem solving in your past • Problem-Solving Schemata • Step-by-step scripts for selecting information and solving special problems • The use of problem-solving schemata is an important aspect of expert knowledge • Algorithms • Formulas or procedures for generating correct solutions • Cannot make an error • Computers programed with algorithms so they don’t make mistakes • Ex. Spell check • Heuristics • Mental shortcuts that may or may not provide correct solutions Algorithms • An Algorithm is a specific process account of a action series which always produces a correct answer • We can determine the most likely algorithm for a task without knowing the specific areas where the task is performed. • Take a math example: if children are using a counting algorithm they should require more time to solve problems which involve more counting. • If the amount of counting required does not affect the time taken to solve the problem then they must be using another process, for example, fact retrieval. • Counting: how much is 2 groups of 5? • Steps • 1 count a group of five • IIIII • 2 count a second group of five IIIII • 3 place the two groups together IIIIIIIIII • 4 count the number of elements • IIIIIIIIII = 10 • Fact retrieval: how much is 2 groups of 5? • Steps • 1 access multiplication table for 5 • 2 Select correct entry (the one with elements matching problem) Problem Solving Heuristics • Means-ends analysis – Identify differences between present state and goal state – Make changes to reduce the differences • Subgoal analysis – Take intermediate steps toward an ultimate solution • Representativeness Heuristic – Used to infer how closely something or someone fits our prototype for a particular concept • Availability Heuristic • Leads us to base judgments on the availability of information in memory • Confirmation bias – The tendency to look for evidence that will confirm beliefs Problem Solving • Two types of problems 1. Those which bear a resemblance to past problems. 2. Those which are unique For those Unique problems memory alone is insufficient to provide a solution A solution here requires Creative or Productive thinking • Both Memory use and Productive thinking reflect Realistic thinking in relation to an objective situation • This may be contrasted to Autistic thinking which is determined primarily by subjective needs and wishes • In most instances some mixture of Realistic and Autistic thinking is in operation • These types of problem solving approaches fal
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.