Class Notes (810,488)
Canada (494,139)
Psychology (6,045)
Psychology 1000 (2,406)

7. Nov 13 --Chapter 7 -Attention and Memory.docx

12 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 1000
Lynn Jackson

Chapter 7: Attention and Memory November 13, 2012 Memory the capacity of our nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge allowing organisms to benefit from experience ** LECTURE Attention and Memory Basic stages and processes of memory Application: debate about recovered memories Prologue: Seizures uncontrolled random firings of groups of neurons, and they can spread across the brain Memory the nervous systems capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge HOW DOES ATTENTION DETERMINE WHAT IS REMEMBERED? What everyone pays attention to, is slightly different, which is why everyone has slightly different representations of what happened. Memory requires attention Our perceptions of the world are often inaccurate, and we have little awareness of our perceptual failures; we simply do not know how much information we miss in the world around us (Gazzaniga, pg 295 text) o ie vanishing ball illusion Research done by directing attention based on specific wording in regards to how fast cars were going in a video before they blank in a car accident (smashed, collided, bumped, contacted) o This is called reconsolidation Reconsolidation the way that a persons attention is directed when recalling it, changing the nature of a memory Visual Attention is Selective and Serial Primitive Features colour, shape, orientation and movement, within an environment; automatically identified Parallel Processing separate systems all process information at the same time; and we can attend selectively one feature by effectively blocking the further processing of the others Visual Search Tasksstudies by Treisman; participants look at a display of different objects on a computer screen, searching for ones called targets that differ from others in only one feature. The other objects are distractors. Searching for two features is o Serial you need to look at more stimuli one at a time o Effortful takes longer and requires more attention Conjunction Tasks when the stimulus you are looking for is made up of two simple features Auditory Attention Allows Selective Listening Cocktail Party Phenomenon coined by psychologist E. C. Cherry; states that you can focus on a single conversation in the midst of a chaotic cocktail party, yet a particularly pertinent stimulus (ie hearing your name mentioning in another conversation) can capture your attention Shadowing a technique by Cherry in which a participant wears headphones that deliver one message to one ear and a different message to the other o The person is asked to attend to one of the two messages and shadow it by repeating it aloud Selective Attention Can Operate at Multiple Stages of Processing Filter Theory developed by Donald Broadbent; assumes that people have a limited capacity for sensory information and thus screen incoming information, letting on only the most important Change Blindness the fact that we are often blind to large changes in our environments because we cannot attend to everything in the vast array of visual information available o Common failure to notice large changes in environments o Shows how attention influences memory o Shows we can attend to a limited amount of information and that large discrepancies exist between what most people believe they see and what they actually see WHAT ARE THE BASIC STAGES OF MEMORY Three Distinct Phases of the Information Processing Model: o What is happening in terms of info being brought into memory and used (processes) o Encoding the processing of information so that it can be stored; occurs at the time of learning as information is acquired/encoded, or changed into a neural code that the brain can use Nature of the representation (tactile, visual, auditory, etc.) What cells are firing where in the brain; what is going on in the brain in terms of neurological code Ie. when asked your phone number, hearing it, seeing it in your head, tactile etc. o Storage the retention of encoded representations over time that corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers the event; which can last a fraction of a second or a lifetime Phenomenon whereby info is actually made into a memory (long-term) Analogy like saving a doc. on that computer Cells wire together when we store information Congrats! You have a memory! o Retrieval the act of recalling or remembering store information to use it; which we usually think of as reaching into our memory storage to find a previously encoded and stored memory a we need it Ie. picturing the bedroom you grew up in by virtue of a CUE Modal Memory Model the three-stage memory system that involves sensory memory (unattended info is lost), short term memory (unrehearsed info is lost), and long term memory (some info may be lost over time)o Three Kinds of Memory: (within the Modal Memory Model) More in regards to the nature of memory Sensory Short-Term (working) Long-Term Sensory Memory is Brief Sensory Memory memory for sensory information that is stored briefly close to its original sensory form o Temporary memory system, lasting only a fraction of a second and closely tied to the sensory systems o Corresponds to encoding o Information is retained sufficiently in sensory form for processing o Analogy when using sparklers, you see the circle or shape that is formed by moving it because it is maintained long enough Our sensory systems transduce, or change, information into neural impulses, and everything we remember is the result of neurons firing in the brain A sensory memory occurs when a light, a sound, an odour, a taste or a tactile impression leaves a vanishing trace on the nervous system for a fraction of a second Sensory memories allow us to experience the world as a continuous stream rather than in discrete sensations, much the way a movie projector plays a series of still pictures Visual and auditory memories are maintained at the sensory memory stage long enough to ensure a continuous sensory experience o Ie.
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.