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Lecture

Chapter 7 psych

18 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
Professor
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

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Description
Chapter 7 LEARNING What is Learning? 3 Main theories • Classical Conditioning • Operant conditioning • Social Learning theory PRACTICE EXAM QUESTION Q: Alcohol has its effects by: A. increasing GABA. B. decreasing glutamte. C. decreasing serotonin. D. increasing acetylcholine. E. Both A) and B). PRACTICE EXAM QUESTION Q: In the research discussed in lecture, the substance used by the greatest number of Grade 12 students was: A. inhallants B. marijuana C. cocaine D. LSD E. All of the above about equally. What is Learning? •Evolution – The changes in behaviour that accumulate across generations are stored in genes •Learning – The changes in behaviour that accumulate over a lifetime are stored in the central nervous system Remember the Behaviourists? •Must study observable behavior •Behaviorists argued that – Unobservable phenomenon aren’t necessary for an understanding of human nature • Knowledge is learned - experience shapes growth Opening of Watson's "Behaviorist Manifesto" (Watson 1913) Classical Conditioning • Learning by associating two stimuli together • Learning occurs when we recognize that one event will predict another Ivan Pavlov TERMINOLOGY •UCS (unconditioned Stimulus) – unlearned stimulus (food, pain etc…) •UCR (unconditioned Response) – unlearned response • Salivation in response to food • Fear as a response to pain •CS (conditioned Stimulus) – learned stimulus (any stimulus you’ve learned to respond to) • Fish after food poisoning •CR (conditioned Response) – Learned response • Salivation in response to object paired with food • Fear as a response to a situation paired with pain Paired food with bell Summary The Terminology Game Indicate the UCS, CS, and CR for the following examples: •Every time Robert’s wife flushes the toilet when he’s in the shower, the water becomes painfully hot. One day, as Robert is stepping into the shower, he hears a flushing sound and flinches. UCS = hot water CS= fluching CR= flinching •Sara has had a lot of dental work done recently (fillings, root canals). Now, just walking into the reception room at the dentist makes her palms sweaty UCS= dental work Cs= being at the dentist CR= sweaty palms •Rob’s first girlfriend loved to eat onions. Whenever they kissed, he could faintly taste onion on her breath. Now, the very scent of onions “turns him on” UCS= kissing CS= onions CR= being turned on Other Important Terms •Acquisition – period where learning is occurring • Extinction – unlearning the learned response • Spontaneous Recovery - After extinction occurs if the dogs were to suddenly respond to the bell without any additional learning • Generalization - Ring different bell then dogs would generalize and salivate regardless • Discrimination - Give sound of drum or flute then the dogs won’t salivate because sound is different Other Considerations •Taste Aversions – Strong CS-UCS association after only one trial •Biological Preparedness (fear snakes more than rabbits) – More easily lean some associations than others •Acquiring “unusual” behavior …. (understanding the development of unusual behaviour) CLINICAL APPLICATIONS Explaining the Development of unusual behavior …. a Sexual Fetish …. •PARAPHILIA - Recurring, unconventional sexual behavior that is obsessive & compulsive, involving: » Intense sexually arousing fantasies »Non-human objects » Suffering or humiliation of oneself or one’s partner » objects, other non-consenting adults, or children. CASE STUDY • The development of a paraphilia FETISHISM WHAT CAUSES PARAPHILIA ? Sensory stimulation Arousal I. LEARNING THEORY (CLASSICAL CONDTIONING) Sensory stimulation 1. UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE . Arousal 2. LEARNED ASSOCIATION BUILT THROUGH PAIRING Fetish Object 3. CONDITIONED RESPONSE Fetish object Arousal Learning Phobias (John B. Watson) •Applied classical conditioning principles to humans – Acquisition of phobias •Little Albert – Development is simply learned responses from the environment •Ethical concerns… – Generalization (Albert was also afraid of rabbits and other soft things like the rat) CLASSICAL CONDITIONING •Many important applications – Learning of both positive and negative reactions through pairing Other examples – After being in a MVA: anxious when travelling in any vehicle (vehicle becomes a CS) –After drinking too much: Nausea paired with the taste/smell of alcohol (Alcohol becomes a CS) Part B PRACTICE EXAM QUESTION Q: In Pavlov’s study, when he teaches the dog to salivate to a bell, the bell is the: A. Unconditioned stimulus B. Conditioned stimulus C. Conditioned response D. Unconditioned response E. Both A) and B). REVIEW •Classical Conditioning (Little Albert) Prior to Learning •UCS (loud noise) -> UCR Fear •CS (rat) -- no response Learning Trials • UCS(loud noise) + CS (rat) -- UCR (fear) After Learning Trials • CS (Rat) --- CR ( Fear) •Classical Conditioning Extinction • CS (rat) without UCS (loud noise)  UCR (fear initially) Over Time • CS (rat) without UCS (loud noise) -> No response eventually TREATMENTS (based on Learning Theory) •Based on Classical Conditioning •EXPOSURE THERAPIES – expose the phobic patient to the feared stimulus CS without any UCS allowing extinction to occur 1.Systematic Desensitization 2.flooding 3. Aversion therapy • EXPOSURE BASED TREATMENTS 1.Systematic Desensitization: : reducing anxiety through counter conditioning i) Develop a fear hierarchy ii) Relaxation training iii) Gradually increase exposure to feared stimulus while engaging in relaxation techniques FLOODING 2. Flooding: reducing anxiety through extinction: - complete exposure to feared stimulus and eventually habituation occurs Extinction CS (spider w/out negative consequences UCR (fear) initially Maintain Exposure Over Time CS (spider) -- 3. AVERSIVE CONDITIONING - Pairing an aversive (negative stimulus with an undesired behaviour Substance Abuse – Antabuse - Violently ill when combined with alchohol Sexual Offenders – shock therapy - Covert sensitization - Covert sensitization – a type of aversive conditioning Pairing an aversive (negative) stimulus with an undesired behavior EXAMPLE –Treating “Rubber pants fetish” • if imagination pair rubber pants with something repulsive •over time rubber pants causes revulsion rather than arousal Can Classical Conditioning Make us Sick and Healthy Again ? •Improving the well being of cancer patients •Chemotherapy used to treat cancer patients causes nausea and vomiting after treatement •ANV (Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting) • 20% - 50% become nauseated and vomit minutes to hours before chemo •UCS (sickness caused by treatment) + CS (treatment room or IV needles)  CR (nausea) •So, pair CS with relaxation & pleasant images Classical Conditioning can improve immune system functioning (Sauer et al., 2008) Experimental group – given sweet sherbet with norepinephrine (immune stimulant) Control Group – only norepinephrine Subsequently, experimental group had stronger immune reaction when given sw
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