theories of dreaming
classical conditioning model
are nightmares common?
why do we dream?
how do we learn by classical conditioning?
bw is on trial for murder. he claims that was dreaming and started to sleepwalk.
therefore, should not be held accountable because he was dreaming at the time.
you dont believe his story. why?
because dreams and sleepwalking typically occur in different stages of sleep.
modtly in colour
duration directly relayted to duration of REM
eye movements related to action
events unfold in real time
why do we remember some dreams and not others?
- those in last REM period
reflection of cortical activity
nightmares! - vivid, high anxiety dreams
significant stress correlated witth increase frequency
in adults, correlated with psychopathology (anxiety)
more common in children.
drug related - antidepressants, beta blockers, antihypertensives,
ciron antihistamines, L-dopa
WOOd AND BOOTZIN
do 'healthy' people ave nightmares?
suveryed 220 students
measured both frequency of nightmares and anxiety
- self reported mean: 9 per yr
dream logs indicated an of 25 per yr
measured anxiety unrelated to frequency
theories of dreaming
Activation - Synthesis
Unconscious...Id (always is there!!!!)
- Repressed wishes strive for expression
- wants to sleep, but urges invade consciousness! (Id wants to do stuff and EGO
wants to SLEEP) Id (i want to do stuff!) ----> Ego (i'll do something) ----> Censor (EGO disguises
- thus content is censored and disguised
Latent -> actual desire (the actual meaning)
Manifest -> Laundered Version (what you say)
- but manifest content contains clues...
symbols where one thing stands for another
frued says the symbols are everywhere! eveeeeerywhere. in everything we do.
symbol for Sexual Intercourse
climbing a ladder, staircase, riding an elevator, horse or rolleroaster, crossing a
bridge, walking into a tunnel, flying in an airplane
Activation - synthesis
dream state generater: periodic firing of pons
pons keep firing ---> dream state genetor ---> activation --> sensory, motor, and
'visceral' neurons activated
Activation ---> synthesis : cortex integrated elements (cortex tries to make sense
out of what is going on)
so is there nothing special about dreaming?
- by age 72 --> 24 yrs of sleep! 5 yrs dreaming.
- REM deprivation -> 'no' ill effects
DREAMING DOES REFLECT ABOUT THINGS THAT HAVE HAPPENED
*look at fig 6.18
- dream world is much like waking world - waking world allows for real perceptual input, in dreams, we neeed to construct
other important topics
- drug effects --> major categories (eg depressants, stimulants)
- hypnosis --> theories (eg.. dissociation)
focus on stimulus and response
- classical vs instrumental conditioning
classical or pavlovian
association of neutral stimulus with one that consistently elicits a response
UCS --> UCR u - uncondition (dont have to learn it)
PAIR "CS" with UCS s - stimulus c - condition
CS --> CR
condition pavlov's dog
Meat Powder (UCS) ----------------------------------------------------> UCR (salivate)
food = drooling
UCS + CS (bell) -----------------------------------------------------------> CR (salivates with just
bell after enough time)
1) atention to CS - orienting reflex
2) Model is NOT RESPONSE CONTINGENT (response contigent = doesnt matter
anything else, as long as we get the
response we get) 3) CR DOES NOT equal UCR
Examples: walk into the dentist's office
Factors affecting conditioning
Law of effect
Next time: cognitive approach
What are the factors that influence conditioning?
What is the difference between classical and instrumental conditioning?
How is behaviour maintained by its consequences?
- Talk about the cognitive approach as well.
Classical conditioning of LOVE?
Don Bryne: Reinforcement – affect model
Arousing stimulus ---à positive feelings à positive evaluation (like music)
Neutral stimulus (stranger) à like the stranger
May and Hamilton
Female students listen to: negative (classical), neutral, positive (rock)
- Rated attractiveness of male photos While rating the men and if they had positive music, |MEN WERE RATED HIGHER|
but otherwise, negative music decreased the rating
Acquistion curves: response strength
1) Latency (CS – CR)
The latency decreases; negatively accelerated.
Once you get used to the stimulus, you get used to it. You learn better first, later
on, you just fine tune your skills
2) Output measure: in the start, you don’t present much, but later on in life, and
its still negatively accelerated. Faster flattening out, better you learn
1) Forward pairing
CS is presented before the UCS
2) Simultaneous pairing: presenting UCS and CS at the same time
3) Backward pairing: presenting the CS AFTER the UCS.
Which one is the best?
Forward pairing. This is because it serves as a cue. Interval should be 0.5
Higher – order conditioning
- Pair primary CS with another neutral stimulus (secondary CS)
- Not very effective… CS-UCS bond is no longer reinforced
- The CR extinguishes
Higher order conditioning DOES NOT work classical model
- CS no longer paired with UCS - Decrease in response strength
- CS loses cue Value.
Stronger the CS, it takes longer to forget it
1) Index of strength
2) CS-UCS bond not unlearned
“savings” & spontaneous recovery
- Degree of responding to stimuli similar to training stimulus
The loudness scale is 7, now after extinction, you see if the dog salivates at 7, or
does it salivate to everything. It turns out you get a response between 6-9, but 7 is
the highest. The animal has GENERALIZED. This happens with phobias as well.
Instrumental or Operant Conditioning (Throndike and Skinner)
- Association of a stimulus and a response
- S R bonds is strengthened by reinforcement (LAW OF EFFECT)
1) Stimulus situation – dominant response
(whenever you put someone into a stimuli, there is ALWAYS a dominant
2) Chose and reinforce some target response
3) Stimulus situation à target response
THIS IS HEAVILY RESPONSE CONTINGENT
In instrumental conditioning, you must do th