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psych nov 13th.rtf

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Western University
Psychology 1000

dreams revisited theories of dreaming classical conditioning model are nightmares common? why do we dream? how do we learn by classical conditioning? bw is on trial for murder. he claims that was dreaming and started to sleepwalk. therefore, should not be held accountable because he was dreaming at the time. you dont believe his story. why? because dreams and sleepwalking typically occur in different stages of sleep. Structure: mostly visual modtly in colour duration directly relayted to duration of REM eye movements related to action events unfold in real time "fleeting experiences" quickly forgotten why do we remember some dreams and not others? - those in last REM period reflection of cortical activity lucid dreams nightmares! - vivid, high anxiety dreams significant stress correlated witth increase frequency in adults, correlated with psychopathology (anxiety) more common in children. causes: drug related - antidepressants, beta blockers, antihypertensives, ciron antihistamines, L-dopa withdrwal WOOd AND BOOTZIN do 'healthy' people ave nightmares? suveryed 220 students measured both frequency of nightmares and anxiety - self reported mean: 9 per yr dream logs indicated an of 25 per yr measured anxiety unrelated to frequency theories of dreaming Freudian/Psychoanalytic Activation - Synthesis freud Unconscious...Id (always is there!!!!) - Repressed wishes strive for expression EGO - wants to sleep, but urges invade consciousness! (Id wants to do stuff and EGO wants to SLEEP) Id (i want to do stuff!) ----> Ego (i'll do something) ----> Censor (EGO disguises wishes) - thus content is censored and disguised Latent -> actual desire (the actual meaning) Manifest -> Laundered Version (what you say) - but manifest content contains clues... symbols where one thing stands for another frued says the symbols are everywhere! eveeeeerywhere. in everything we do. symbol for Sexual Intercourse climbing a ladder, staircase, riding an elevator, horse or rolleroaster, crossing a bridge, walking into a tunnel, flying in an airplane Activation - synthesis dream state generater: periodic firing of pons pons keep firing ---> dream state genetor ---> activation --> sensory, motor, and 'visceral' neurons activated Activation ---> synthesis : cortex integrated elements (cortex tries to make sense out of what is going on) so is there nothing special about dreaming? - by age 72 --> 24 yrs of sleep! 5 yrs dreaming. - REM deprivation -> 'no' ill effects DREAMING DOES REFLECT ABOUT THINGS THAT HAVE HAPPENED *look at fig 6.18 - dream world is much like waking world - waking world allows for real perceptual input, in dreams, we neeed to construct reality other important topics - drug effects --> major categories (eg depressants, stimulants) - hypnosis --> theories (eg.. dissociation) learning behaviourism focus on stimulus and response - classical vs instrumental conditioning classical or pavlovian association of neutral stimulus with one that consistently elicits a response MODEL UCS --> UCR u - uncondition (dont have to learn it) PAIR "CS" with UCS s - stimulus c - condition CS --> CR condition pavlov's dog Meat Powder (UCS) ----------------------------------------------------> UCR (salivate) food = drooling UCS + CS (bell) -----------------------------------------------------------> CR (salivates with just bell after enough time) 1) atention to CS - orienting reflex 2) Model is NOT RESPONSE CONTINGENT (response contigent = doesnt matter anything else, as long as we get the response we get) 3) CR DOES NOT equal UCR Examples: walk into the dentist's office UCS: drill UCR: pain/fear CS: Dentist CR: Fear ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Factors affecting conditioning Instrumental model Law of effect Next time: cognitive approach What are the factors that influence conditioning? What is the difference between classical and instrumental conditioning? How is behaviour maintained by its consequences? - Talk about the cognitive approach as well. Classical conditioning of LOVE? Don Bryne: Reinforcement – affect model Arousing stimulus ---à positive feelings à positive evaluation (like music) Neutral stimulus (stranger) à like the stranger May and Hamilton Female students listen to: negative (classical), neutral, positive (rock) - Rated attractiveness of male photos While rating the men and if they had positive music, |MEN WERE RATED HIGHER| but otherwise, negative music decreased the rating Acquistion curves: response strength 1) Latency (CS – CR) The latency decreases; negatively accelerated. Once you get used to the stimulus, you get used to it. You learn better first, later on, you just fine tune your skills 2) Output measure: in the start, you don’t present much, but later on in life, and its still negatively accelerated. Faster flattening out, better you learn Temporal Contiguity 1) Forward pairing CS is presented before the UCS 2) Simultaneous pairing: presenting UCS and CS at the same time 3) Backward pairing: presenting the CS AFTER the UCS. Which one is the best? Forward pairing. This is because it serves as a cue. Interval should be 0.5 seconds. Higher – order conditioning - Pair primary CS with another neutral stimulus (secondary CS) - Not very effective… CS-UCS bond is no longer reinforced - The CR extinguishes Higher order conditioning DOES NOT work classical model In Exctinction - CS no longer paired with UCS - Decrease in response strength - CS loses cue Value. Stronger the CS, it takes longer to forget it Note: 1) Index of strength 2) CS-UCS bond not unlearned “savings” & spontaneous recovery Generalization - Degree of responding to stimuli similar to training stimulus The loudness scale is 7, now after extinction, you see if the dog salivates at 7, or does it salivate to everything. It turns out you get a response between 6-9, but 7 is the highest. The animal has GENERALIZED. This happens with phobias as well. Instrumental or Operant Conditioning (Throndike and Skinner) - Association of a stimulus and a response - S R bonds is strengthened by reinforcement (LAW OF EFFECT) MODEL 1) Stimulus situation – dominant response (whenever you put someone into a stimuli, there is ALWAYS a dominant response 2) Chose and reinforce some target response 3) Stimulus situation à target response THIS IS HEAVILY RESPONSE CONTINGENT In instrumental conditioning, you must do th
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