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Psychology1000 Chapter 11

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Psychology 1000

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Chapter 11- Motivation & Emotions  Motivation: a process that influences the direction persistence and vigour of goal-directed behaviour  Instinct: is an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus o Have a genetic basis o Do not depend on learning and have survival value for an organism  Human instinct theories faded due to little evidence to support it  Homeostasis: a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain o Requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment o Control center functions like a thermostate  Once fixed at a set point the sensors detect changes  Drive theory of motivation: physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, state of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce the tension o Drives e.g. hunger and thirst  Incentives: represent enviormental stimuli that pull the organism toward a goal  Incentive theories focus attention on external stimuli  Expectancy x Value Theory: o Proposes that goal directed behaviour is jointly determined by two factors  The strength of the persons expectation that particular behaviours will ead to a goal  The value the individual places on that goal –incentive value o The two factors are multiplied producing : Motivation = expectancy*incentive value  Extrinsic Motivation: performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment  Intrinsic Motivation: performing an activity for its sake—you find it enjoyable or stimulating  The psychodynamic and humanistic perspectives view motivation within a borader context of personality development and functioning o However they are 2 radiaclly different approachs  Freds psychoanalytic theory o Highlighted motivational underworld o Much of our behaviour results from a never ending battle between unconscious impulses struggling for release and psychological devences used to keep them under control o Research has little support to this  Todays psychodynamic theories continue to emphasize that along with conscious mental processes unconscious motivations and tensions guide how we act and feel  Maslow belived that we strive for our personal growth o Distinguished between  Deficiency needs: concerned with physical and social survival  Growth needs: iniquely human and motivates us to develop out potential o Need Hierarchy: progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top  Once out phasic physicological needs are satisfied we focus on our needs for safety andsecurity o Self-actualization: represents the need to fulfill our potential and it is the ultimate human motive o CHART ON PAGE 394  Critics question the validity of Maslow’s need of hierarchy and the concept is vague  More recent humanistic theory o Self-Determination Theory: focuses on three fundamental psychological needs:  Competence  The human need to master new challenges and perfect skills  Autonomy  People experience their actions as a result of free choice without outside interference  Relatednees  The desire to form meaningful bonds with others o People are most fulfilled in their lives when they are able to satisfy them  When they are not met there can be consequences o This theory has been strongly supported but research  Biolgoical, psychological and environmental factors regulate our food intake  Metabolism: the body’s rate of energy or caloric utilization and about two thirds of the energy we normally use goes to support the basal metabolism, the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells  There are long term and short term signals o They adjust appetite and metabolism to compensate for times when you over eat or under eat  Washburn balloon experiment  Hunger pangs do not depend on an empty stomach  Glucose: a simple sugar that is the bodys major source of immediately sable fuel  When blood glucose levels decrease the liver responds by converting stored nutrition back into glucose  The stomach and the intestinal distention are satiely signals o The walls of these otgans stretch as good fills them up sending nerve signals to the brain  Nutritionally rich food seems to produce satiety more quickly than an equal volume of less nutritious food  People who have their stomach removed experience satiety not only because of intestinal distention but also because of chemical signals  Hormons call peptides  CCK is released into the blood stream bu the small intestine as food arrives from the stomach  Fat cells are not passive storage sites for fat o They requlate ood intake and wight by secreting leptin  Hormone that decreases appetite  The signals influence neural athways o decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure  It does not make us feel full  My regulate appetite by increasing the potency of these other signals  Early experiments pointed to two regions in the hypothalamus o Lateral hypothalamus seemed to a hunger on center o Venteromedial hypothalamus seemed to be a hunger off center  Paraventricular Nucleus(PVN) : is a cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite o It integrates several different sort term and long term signals that influence metabolic and digestive processes o Neuropeptide Y a powerful appetite stimulant  Cognitively we develop an expectation that eating will be pleasurable o Even just thinking about food can make one hungry  People who perceive themselves as heavy tend to have lower self-esteem but this relation is stronger among women than men  Objectification Theory o Western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects much as external observers would  This increases body shame and anxiety which leads to eating restriction and eating disorders  In one experiment women tend to eat less in the presence of a desirable male compared to the presence of a undesirable male  People are very sensitive to changes in environmental stimuli such as portion size the number of people present during a meal the amount that others eat and the variety of we foods available  We typically eat more when dining with other people then when eating alone  BMI between 25-29.9 is considered overw
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