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1. Gender and Sexuality -Chapter 11.docx

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Western University
Sociology 1021E
Secil Erdogan

Gender and Sexuality –Chapter 11 January 14, 2013 Important Concepts:  Sex –depends on genitals and genetic programs that release male or female hormones to stimulate development of your reproductive system; assigned at birth  Gender –based on social expectations for individuals stemming from biology; assigned by society o You are playing masculine or feminine roles as defined as appropriate by your culture and society  Gender Role –set of behaviours that are expected from males and females  Gender Identity –a person’s identification with, or sense of belonging to, a particular sex- biologically, psychologically, and socially  The Gender Binary –concept based upon societal “norms” that one can be either a man or a woman, ONLY  Most people are assigned sex at birth based on the appearance of external genitalia  Physiologically, sex is determined by X and Y chromosomes o XX for female o XY for male  However, some individuals are born with an extra chromosome: XXY, XXX, XYY or a chromosome may be absent: X alone  Transgender –a person who expresses their gender as other than the societal expectations of their assigned sex at birth THE SOCIAL LEARNING PROCESS  Gender is not determined solely by biology, but requires social learning  Babies first develop a vague sense of being a girl or boy at age 1  A more sophisticated sense of gender identity and gender role develop between ages 2-3 THEORIES OF GENDER  Nature or nurture? o Do gender differences arise from a process of natural evolution or do they stem from the social learning process  Essentialism –emphasize nature o Sees gender differences as a reflection of biological differences, and views masculinity and femininity as inherent and universal traits o Freudian theory o Sociobiology
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