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Ch.14 Teevan Text. Socialization

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Sociology 1021E
Kim Luton

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Ch.14 Organizations and Work work - activity that makes physical materials, services, and ideas more useful - manual work, service work, intellectual work - human work different than animal work because - we conceptualize - conduct purposeful/conscious work (not instinct) Evolution of Work - early human societies ; social division of labour. Dependent on gender and age. Men hunt women collect berries - nomadic; serfs farm land while lord manage and own - industrial: detailed division of labour. Interdependence, viewed as harmful - Industrialism; Marx, social discontent and overthrow of upper class. Durkheim, individuals experience anomie (atomized, normlessness) Scientific management/Fordism/Taylorism - breaking down production into smaller more manageable parts . Increases productivity for mass production but not wellbeing of workers - could not be used for smaller quantities of production - workers rebelled bc work too brainless and repetitive - social contract: gov’t, businesses, and workers understand that hard growth and cooperation leads to economic growth. Therefore workers should be treated well for their contribution to society formal organizations - institutions developed out of industrial capitalism w. division of labour to make work efficient (exp. schools, hospitals, corporations) informal organizations - arise out of need to support organization. Could be positive or not (rumour mills), flexible and functional rationalization - capitalist’s concern with increasing efficiency; more detailed division of labour negotiated order theory – organizations are flexible structures developed through interpersonal interactions McDonalization/rationalization – efficiency, calculability (quantity over quality), predictability, control. Dehumanizing and harmful, spread to other sectors of society causing a lost of autonomy (exp. Hospitals) Inequalities - Occupational segregation – based on sex, race & ethnicity. - Work linked to social inequality; one’s job determines one’s opportunities, life style, and social status. - Personal bias of the employer important Youth & Labour Market - Youth unemployment and wage drop increasing - Delayed adulthood; more school, older marriage etc. Alienating / Satisfying Work - Alienation – Marx. Structural problem where doers are controlled by deciders and lose their ability to control how they worked. Lose creativity and humanity - Durkhe
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