1/30/2011 3:25:00 PM
Gender – Lecture and Reading
Language gendered and works to reproduce the gendered order.
Linguistic Sexism – tendency to communicate sexist messages or
What a man owns is generally characterized as female.
o “She‟s running better than ever” – reference to a boat.
Sex Codes – Premarital Sex Standards
Regulate sexual behavior outside of marriage.
o Abstinence Standard – Forbids sex
o Double Standard – Men can have sex without consequence while
women are looked at negatively if they do it.
o Love Standard – Sex outside of marriage is okay if it is an
expression of love.
o Fun Standard – Giving/receiving of pleasure through sex is okay
as long as partners are willing.
Sex and Gender
Based on physiological differences.
An ascribed status – born into it.
Estimated 1-3% of babies are born “intersexed”.
o Not clearly male/female.
o Parents forced to decide which child they want, 90% turned into
o Androgyny – blending both masculine and feminine traits.
o Transgendered – those who include aspects of both genders.
SEEMS THAT WE ABSOLUTELY NEED TO DETERMINE SOMEONE‟S GENDER FOR
THEM TO BE ACCEPTED.
Social category – culturally defined.
Based on social expectations for an individual.
o Rules specifying appropriate behavior for each gender.
o “Gender Scripts” – guidelines outlining the way someone should act
as a member of either gender.
Gender Achieved (Nurture) - anyone can perform any gender.
Sex Ascribed (Nature) – born into a sex, cannot usually be changed. Becoming Our Gender
Gendered Order – set of structural relations through which people are treated
differently because of their gender.
o Patriarchy – A system of dominance in which all aspects of the
social world have been created by men and are maintained for the
benefit of men as a group.
Women and gay men are considered “others” in this system.
Gender Intensification – process by which individuals are influenced to make
it known that they are different from the opposite gender in terms of
appearance and behavior (seen as totally male or totally female).
o Perpetuated by mass media.
o Adolescence is the key period for this identity manipulation.
o Impossible standards may lead to low-self esteem.
o Emphasizes the dominant/submissive nature of the male/female
relationship perpetuates gender inequality.
Gender Identity – the perception of oneself as either male or female.
Not necessarily consistent with one‟s sex.
Stereotypes – occurs when people believe others possess certain
characteristics as a result of being a member of a certain group.
Gender Stereotypes – attributing certain characteristics to others simply on
the basis of whether they‟re male or female.
This is despite the fact that there is more similarity than difference
Social roles and gender socialization enhance gender stereotypes by
ensuring that certain capabilities are suppressed and males and females
develop different skills.
Gender implies social hierarchy
Women make much less than men, even when they are doing the same work.
Reasons for Gendered Wage Gap
o Women tend to look for part-time work and flexible hours.
o Pregnancy interrupts work, loss of skills.
o Married men look for higher paying jobs usually have to support a
o Married women don‟t usually work full-time Women working full time
usually do not need to support a full family. Double Ghetto
pink collared ghetto of women‟s‟ paid labor.
domestic ghetto of unpaid labor at home.
burden women face from domestic, unpaid labor.
Gendered practices promote social stability.
Women‟s vulnerability needs protecting for reproduction purposes.
o Women do private realm and expressive tasks.
o Men do public realm and instrumental tasks.
Study micro level of everyday behavior.
Children‟s learning is affected by gender appropriation.
Women‟s position in family likened to oppressed working class.
o Both viewed as property.
Industrialization resulted in greater gender inequality than earlier economic
systems, due to capitalists desire to take attention off of class inequality.
Double Jeopardy – result of discrimination towards women‟s gender combined
Multiple Jeopardy – result of discrimination towards women‟s gender, race,
ability, religion, class.
Advocacy of social equality for men and women, in opposition to patriarchy and
Maternal Feminism – Improve society, women‟s suffrage.
Liberal Feminism – Women gain equality through access to jobs and
Socialist Feminism – Gender inequalities influenced by class inequalities
organize with men to solve the problems of gender inequality by getting rid of
Radical Feminism – Patriarchy is universal cause of female oppression
organize separately from men to protect their interests.
Glass Ceiling – women can only go so far in a job.
Pink Ghetto – service positions set aside for women. Guest Speaker – Laura Murphy - Feminism
First Wave Feminism (early 1900s)
o Maternal Feminists looking for female suffrage.
Second Wave Feminism (mid 1900s)
o Liberal and Radical Feminists looking for reproductive rights, education,
workplace rights, and an end to violence and assault against women.
o Contraception was legalized.
Third Wave Feminism (1990s - present)
o Very Inclusive, a place for everybody.
o Looked to get rid of all inequalities, not just gender.
o Many different types of feminists were recognized during this time.
Wifework – meeting a husband‟s sexual, physical, and emotional needs.
Motherwork – fulfilling the emotional and physical needs of children.
Housework – care of the home, cleaning, shopping, cooking and laundry.
o More women and fewer men are taking jobs requiring long hours and
extended absences from home.
Four Areas of Difference
o Females “cult of thinness”
Eating disorders and smoking.
o Males gain weight
Not as extreme as women.
o Media contributes to these images.
o Viewing a body as an object.
o Media encourages this.
o Women leave for children or marriage.
o Men paid more for same job.
o Women more likely to experience sexism because of the power men have
in the workplace.
Refers to the closing gender gap with respect to pay, job tenure, and
housework. Family – Lecture and Reading
Basic Concepts + Definitions
Social institution that unites people in cooperative groups to oversee the bearing
and raising of children “most important institution” - Functionalist
Kinship – a social bond based on blood, marriage, or adoption.
Family Unit – two or more people who are related by blood, marriage or
adoption and reside together.
Nuclear Family – one or two parents and their unmarried children.
o SNAF – Standard North American Family
Extended Family – Nuclear family plus other kin.
Reconstituted Family – Nuclear family with children from a prior union of one
of the spouses.
Blended Family – Includes children from more than one marriage or union.
Consanguine Family – A family in which the focus is on biological relationship
rather than spousal relationship.
Marriage – commitment to another, an ongoing exchange, legally sanctioned
and usually involving economic cooperation, sexual activity and childbearing.
Cohabitation – the sharing of a household by an unmarried couple.
o Less formal, but usually leads to marriage
Cluster-Nesting – older parents living with young adults in one house
o Boomerang Generation – refers to the group of young adults who left
home and then returned for economic purposes a few years later.
Expressive Exchange – emotional dimension of marriage.
o love, empathy, companionship.
Instrumental Exchange – task oriented dimension of marriage
o earning a living, spending money, cleaning, chores.
Abstinence Standard – forbids premarital sex
Double Standard – grants men premarital sex but expects women to refrain
Love Standard – sex is a physical expression of love, acceptable if love is
Fun Standard – sex is giving and receiving pleasure, acceptable if partners are
Homogamy – people marry others like themselves
Heterogamy – people marry those different from themselves
Mating Gradient – women look for men holding higher status Complementary Roles Model – husband spends more time at paid work, wife
spends more time at unpaid work
Double Burden – wife is doing same amount of paid work by more unpaid work
Role Sharing Model – doing same amount of both paid work and unpaid work
Number of Partners
Monogamy – two partners.
Polygamy – involves more than two partners
o Polygyny – one man, multiple women – husband sharing
o Polyandry – one women, multiple men – wife sharing
Group Marriage – involving multiple partners, not specified above.
Sex of Partners
Heterosexual – male and female
Homosexual – same gender
Choice of Partners
Exogamy (Proscriptive Norm) – must NOT marry someone from a defined
Endogamy (Prescriptive Norm) – must marry someone from a defined
Decent – Determines Inheritence
Patrilineal - decent traced through male line
Matrilineal – decent traced through female line
Bilateral – decent traced through both lines
Patrilocal – couple lives with husband‟s parents
Matrilocal – couple lives with female‟s parents
Neolocal – couple resides alone
Authority and Dominance
Patriarchal – males are formal head
Matriarchal – females are formal head
Egalitarian – equal dominance of partners.
o Love subsides
o Woman less dependent than man
o Stressful expectations for either partner
50% more likely to divorce in common law, early marriage, re-married. Sometimes divorce occurs because the instrumental functions of family
o Example: wife becomes extremely successful, no longer needs husband
to support her.
Uxoricide – the killing of one‟s wife.
o Reasons can include cheating, attempts to leave, husband losing
Childbearing and Children
Rossi “Inexperienced Parents”
o Little anticipatory socialization no training
o Limited training during pregnancy
o Transition to parenthood is abrupt
o Society lacks guidelines no “one best way” to be a parent
Critical for positive development in children
Parental responsiveness and demandingness determine parenting style
o Authoritarian (high demand, low response)
Directive, unemotional, obedience and status
o Indifferent (low demand, low response)
Uninvolved, low demands, neglectful
o Authoritative (high demand, high response)
Demanding, responsive, clear standards, supportive
o Indulgent (low demand, high response)
Permissive, self-indulgent, avoids confrontation
American Parenting Styles
Indifferent is most popular in America
o Authoritative parenting is especially rare in other cultures
o Many parents are obeyed without question or explanation
o Greater inherent authority
Theories Regarding Families
o Family performs several vital tasks:
Socialization, regulation of sexual activity, social placement,
material and emotional security.
o Society depends on families Conflict Analysis
o Family perpetuates social inequality
o Property and inheritance
o Racial and ethnic inequality
o Family plays a large role in social stratification
o Explores how individuals shape and experience family life
o Family living offers an opportunity for intimacy
o Family members share activities and build emotional bonds
o Marriage form of negotiation
o Family perpetrator of gender roles
o Rethink notion that families in which no adult male is present are
automatically a cause for concern
Family Violence – Guest Lecturer
o Level of coping learning by listening or seeing
o Life experiences give us a level of coping
o Causes a lower level of coping
o Further violent acts bring down level of coping
Window of Opportunity
o Helping after the first act will encourage families to show up to their help
o Experienced over and over again if not helped
o Cycle of violence may vary in length
o Tension Building Phase
Slaps, shoving, or tripping
Victim feels increasingly powerless
Assaulter blames victim for provoking assault
o The Battering Phase
May last a few minutes to several days
May include sexual assault
o The Manipulation Phase Assaulter may show remorse or kindness in attempt to hold on to
Victim pressured for forgiveness
Made to feel guilty
Reassured by false promise
Entraps victim Media – Readings (No Lecture Required Mo’Fucka)
“Annihilation of space by time” – Karl Marx
Definitions and Basic Concepts
Technological Determinism – seeing economic, cultural and political
transformations being determined by technological transformations.
Information Society – post-industrial society, relies on media, technology,
and efficient transfer of information to live out every day life.
Political Economy of Media – looks at institutions that govern the distribution,
production, and consumption of information.
Technologies of Freedom – empower citizens and make despotic top-down
state control of media more difficult to maintain (open source).
Hypodermic Model – media “injects” messages into consumers that make
them act and respond in a certain way.
Active Audience Theory – people respond to and interpret media differently,
this can affect struggles over cultural authority.
Desensitization – makes the subject less sensitive to real violence or any
other deviant act through media.
Disinhibition – inclining subject to shed barriers towards physical expressions
of aggressive feelings.
Culture Industry – current technological culture used as an industry to make
profit (TV, media, radio, music, computers, video games).
Surrogate Theory – vicariously expressing aggression or violence provides a
substitute for expressing it in the real world.
Cultivation Effect – television and media systematically cultivate certain
perceptions of the real world, whether they are true or false.
Information Imbalance – some people have much better capacities to
produce, record, process and distribute than others due to their access to media
Cultural Imperialism – the forcing of one‟s own culture on a culture that
differentiates from one‟s own.
Hybridization – media corporations establish a world presence, selling exotic
cultural items to unfamiliar cultures (works both ways – what is exotic to us is
not exotic to the culture it comes from, conversely, what is normal to us is
exotic to other cultures).
Cyberspace – global network of networks, the internet.
Virtual Community – people migrate into cyberspace for “togetherness” – not
just information but also relationships.
Virtual Commerce – growth of internet sparks business interests. Computer