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Sociology 1021E
Kim Luton

1/30/2011 3:25:00 PM Gender – Lecture and Reading Language  Language  gendered and works to reproduce the gendered order.  Linguistic Sexism – tendency to communicate sexist messages or connotations.  What a man owns is generally characterized as female. o “She‟s running better than ever” – reference to a boat. Sex Codes – Premarital Sex Standards  Regulate sexual behavior outside of marriage. o Abstinence Standard – Forbids sex o Double Standard – Men can have sex without consequence while women are looked at negatively if they do it. o Love Standard – Sex outside of marriage is okay if it is an expression of love. o Fun Standard – Giving/receiving of pleasure through sex is okay as long as partners are willing. Sex and Gender Sex  Biological category.  Based on physiological differences.  An ascribed status – born into it.  Estimated 1-3% of babies are born “intersexed”. o Not clearly male/female. o Parents forced to decide which child they want, 90% turned into females. o Androgyny – blending both masculine and feminine traits. o Transgendered – those who include aspects of both genders.  SEEMS THAT WE ABSOLUTELY NEED TO DETERMINE SOMEONE‟S GENDER FOR THEM TO BE ACCEPTED. Gender  Social category – culturally defined.  Based on social expectations for an individual.  GENDER NORMS. o Rules specifying appropriate behavior for each gender. o “Gender Scripts” – guidelines outlining the way someone should act as a member of either gender.  Gender  Achieved (Nurture) - anyone can perform any gender.  Sex  Ascribed (Nature) – born into a sex, cannot usually be changed. Becoming Our Gender  Gendered Order – set of structural relations through which people are treated differently because of their gender. o Patriarchy – A system of dominance in which all aspects of the social world have been created by men and are maintained for the benefit of men as a group.  Women and gay men are considered “others” in this system.  Gender Intensification – process by which individuals are influenced to make it known that they are different from the opposite gender in terms of appearance and behavior (seen as totally male or totally female). o Perpetuated by mass media. o Adolescence is the key period for this identity manipulation. o Impossible standards may lead to low-self esteem. o Emphasizes the dominant/submissive nature of the male/female relationship  perpetuates gender inequality.  Gender Identity – the perception of oneself as either male or female.  Not necessarily consistent with one‟s sex. Gender Stereotypes  Stereotypes – occurs when people believe others possess certain characteristics as a result of being a member of a certain group.  Gender Stereotypes – attributing certain characteristics to others simply on the basis of whether they‟re male or female.  This is despite the fact that there is more similarity than difference between genders.  Social roles and gender socialization enhance gender stereotypes by ensuring that certain capabilities are suppressed and males and females develop different skills. Wage Gap  Gender implies social hierarchy  Women make much less than men, even when they are doing the same work.  Reasons for Gendered Wage Gap o Women tend to look for part-time work and flexible hours. o Pregnancy  interrupts work, loss of skills. o Married men look for higher paying jobs  usually have to support a family. o Married women don‟t usually work full-time  Women working full time usually do not need to support a full family. Double Ghetto  pink collared ghetto of women‟s‟ paid labor.  domestic ghetto of unpaid labor at home. Second Shift  burden women face from domestic, unpaid labor. Theories Structural Functionalism  Gendered practices promote social stability.  Women‟s vulnerability needs protecting for reproduction purposes. o Women do private realm and expressive tasks. o Men do public realm and instrumental tasks. Symbolic Interactionism  Study micro level of everyday behavior.  Children‟s learning is affected by gender appropriation. Conflict Perspective  Women‟s position in family likened to oppressed working class. o Both viewed as property.  Industrialization resulted in greater gender inequality than earlier economic systems, due to capitalists desire to take attention off of class inequality.  Double Jeopardy – result of discrimination towards women‟s gender combined with race/ethnicity.  Multiple Jeopardy – result of discrimination towards women‟s gender, race, ability, religion, class. Feminism  Advocacy of social equality for men and women, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism.  Maternal Feminism – Improve society, women‟s suffrage.  Liberal Feminism – Women gain equality through access to jobs and education.  Socialist Feminism – Gender inequalities influenced by class inequalities  organize with men to solve the problems of gender inequality by getting rid of class system.  Radical Feminism – Patriarchy is universal cause of female oppression  organize separately from men to protect their interests.  Glass Ceiling – women can only go so far in a job.  Pink Ghetto – service positions set aside for women. Guest Speaker – Laura Murphy - Feminism  First Wave Feminism (early 1900s) o Maternal Feminists looking for female suffrage.  Second Wave Feminism (mid 1900s) o Liberal and Radical Feminists looking for reproductive rights, education, workplace rights, and an end to violence and assault against women. o Contraception was legalized.  Third Wave Feminism (1990s - present) o Very Inclusive, a place for everybody. o Looked to get rid of all inequalities, not just gender. o Many different types of feminists were recognized during this time. Women‟s Work  Wifework – meeting a husband‟s sexual, physical, and emotional needs.  Motherwork – fulfilling the emotional and physical needs of children.  Housework – care of the home, cleaning, shopping, cooking and laundry. o More women and fewer men are taking jobs requiring long hours and extended absences from home. Four Areas of Difference  Body Image o Females  “cult of thinness”  Eating disorders and smoking. o Males  gain weight  Steroid use  Not as extreme as women. o Media contributes to these images.  Objectification o Viewing a body as an object. o Media encourages this.  Wage-Gap o Women leave for children or marriage. o Men paid more for same job.  Experiencing Violence o Women more likely to experience sexism because of the power men have in the workplace. Convergence  Refers to the closing gender gap with respect to pay, job tenure, and housework. Family – Lecture and Reading Basic Concepts + Definitions  Social institution that unites people in cooperative groups to oversee the bearing and raising of children  “most important institution” - Functionalist  Kinship – a social bond based on blood, marriage, or adoption.  Family Unit – two or more people who are related by blood, marriage or adoption and reside together.  Nuclear Family – one or two parents and their unmarried children. o SNAF – Standard North American Family  Extended Family – Nuclear family plus other kin.  Reconstituted Family – Nuclear family with children from a prior union of one of the spouses.  Blended Family – Includes children from more than one marriage or union.  Consanguine Family – A family in which the focus is on biological relationship rather than spousal relationship.  Marriage – commitment to another, an ongoing exchange, legally sanctioned and usually involving economic cooperation, sexual activity and childbearing.  Cohabitation – the sharing of a household by an unmarried couple. o Less formal, but usually leads to marriage  Cluster-Nesting – older parents living with young adults in one house o Boomerang Generation – refers to the group of young adults who left home and then returned for economic purposes a few years later.  Expressive Exchange – emotional dimension of marriage. o love, empathy, companionship.  Instrumental Exchange – task oriented dimension of marriage o earning a living, spending money, cleaning, chores.  Abstinence Standard – forbids premarital sex  Double Standard – grants men premarital sex but expects women to refrain from it  Love Standard – sex is a physical expression of love, acceptable if love is present  Fun Standard – sex is giving and receiving pleasure, acceptable if partners are willing  Homogamy – people marry others like themselves  Heterogamy – people marry those different from themselves  Mating Gradient – women look for men holding higher status  Complementary Roles Model – husband spends more time at paid work, wife spends more time at unpaid work  Double Burden – wife is doing same amount of paid work by more unpaid work  Role Sharing Model – doing same amount of both paid work and unpaid work Number of Partners  Monogamy – two partners.  Polygamy – involves more than two partners o Polygyny – one man, multiple women – husband sharing o Polyandry – one women, multiple men – wife sharing  Group Marriage – involving multiple partners, not specified above. Sex of Partners  Heterosexual – male and female  Homosexual – same gender Choice of Partners  Exogamy (Proscriptive Norm) – must NOT marry someone from a defined group.  Endogamy (Prescriptive Norm) – must marry someone from a defined group. Decent – Determines Inheritence  Patrilineal - decent traced through male line  Matrilineal – decent traced through female line  Bilateral – decent traced through both lines Residence  Patrilocal – couple lives with husband‟s parents  Matrilocal – couple lives with female‟s parents  Neolocal – couple resides alone Authority and Dominance  Patriarchal – males are formal head  Matriarchal – females are formal head  Egalitarian – equal dominance of partners. Divorce  Causes: o Individualism o Love subsides o Woman less dependent than man o Stressful expectations for either partner  50% more likely to divorce in common law, early marriage, re-married.  Sometimes divorce occurs because the instrumental functions of family diminish. o Example: wife becomes extremely successful, no longer needs husband to support her.  Uxoricide – the killing of one‟s wife. o Reasons can include cheating, attempts to leave, husband losing control Childbearing and Children  Very Expensive  Rossi  “Inexperienced Parents” o Little anticipatory socialization  no training o Limited training during pregnancy o Transition to parenthood is abrupt o Society lacks guidelines  no “one best way” to be a parent Parenting Styles  Critical for positive development in children  Parental responsiveness and demandingness determine parenting style o Authoritarian (high demand, low response)  Directive, unemotional, obedience and status o Indifferent (low demand, low response)  Uninvolved, low demands, neglectful o Authoritative (high demand, high response)  Demanding, responsive, clear standards, supportive o Indulgent (low demand, high response)  Permissive, self-indulgent, avoids confrontation American Parenting Styles  Value independence  Indifferent is most popular in America  Other Cultures: o Authoritative parenting is especially rare in other cultures o Many parents are obeyed without question or explanation o Greater inherent authority Theories Regarding Families  Structural Functionalist o Family performs several vital tasks:  Socialization, regulation of sexual activity, social placement, material and emotional security. o Society depends on families  Conflict Analysis o Family perpetuates social inequality o Property and inheritance o Patriarchy o Racial and ethnic inequality o Family plays a large role in social stratification  Symbolic Interactionism o Explores how individuals shape and experience family life o Family living offers an opportunity for intimacy o Family members share activities and build emotional bonds o Marriage  form of negotiation  Feminism o Family perpetrator of gender roles o Rethink notion that families in which no adult male is present are automatically a cause for concern Family Violence – Guest Lecturer  Pre-Crisis o Level of coping  learning by listening or seeing o Life experiences give us a level of coping  Crisis o Causes a lower level of coping o Further violent acts bring down level of coping  Window of Opportunity o Helping after the first act will encourage families to show up to their help appointments  Wife Assault o Experienced over and over again if not helped o Cycle of violence may vary in length  Three Phases o Tension Building Phase  Slaps, shoving, or tripping  Psychological abuse  Victim feels increasingly powerless  Assaulter blames victim for provoking assault o The Battering Phase  May last a few minutes to several days  May include sexual assault o The Manipulation Phase  Assaulter may show remorse or kindness in attempt to hold on to victim  Victim pressured for forgiveness  Made to feel guilty  Reassured by false promise  Entraps victim Media – Readings (No Lecture Required Mo’Fucka) “Annihilation of space by time” – Karl Marx Definitions and Basic Concepts  Technological Determinism – seeing economic, cultural and political transformations being determined by technological transformations.  Information Society – post-industrial society, relies on media, technology, and efficient transfer of information to live out every day life.  Political Economy of Media – looks at institutions that govern the distribution, production, and consumption of information.  Technologies of Freedom – empower citizens and make despotic top-down state control of media more difficult to maintain (open source).  Hypodermic Model – media “injects” messages into consumers that make them act and respond in a certain way.  Active Audience Theory – people respond to and interpret media differently, this can affect struggles over cultural authority.  Desensitization – makes the subject less sensitive to real violence or any other deviant act through media.  Disinhibition – inclining subject to shed barriers towards physical expressions of aggressive feelings.  Culture Industry – current technological culture used as an industry to make profit (TV, media, radio, music, computers, video games).  Surrogate Theory – vicariously expressing aggression or violence provides a substitute for expressing it in the real world.  Cultivation Effect – television and media systematically cultivate certain perceptions of the real world, whether they are true or false.  Information Imbalance – some people have much better capacities to produce, record, process and distribute than others due to their access to media and technology.  Cultural Imperialism – the forcing of one‟s own culture on a culture that differentiates from one‟s own.  Hybridization – media corporations establish a world presence, selling exotic cultural items to unfamiliar cultures (works both ways – what is exotic to us is not exotic to the culture it comes from, conversely, what is normal to us is exotic to other cultures).  Cyberspace – global network of networks, the internet.  Virtual Community – people migrate into cyberspace for “togetherness” – not just information but also relationships.  Virtual Commerce – growth of internet sparks business interests. Computer space for
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