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Lecture 4

Social Psychology - Week 4.docx

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Sociology 2234E
Charles Levine

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Social Psychology – Lecture 3 Men are more intelligent than woman - How do you operationalize intelligence? – SB test - all we have is one observation  go to other universities - it is always the case that men >10pts women - This leads to an empirical generalization – which leads back to another why – why are men smarter? o ALWAYS generates more questions - the ability to assimilate information, accommodate to existing structures in order to adapt to demands in environment = intelligence 3 Sources of Bias - operationalization – we are actively involved in constructing what it is we discover – then the traditional notion of science doesn’t exist anymore  “FACTS” that you’ve discovered – you get stuck - experimenter bias – Rosenthan – observing how people run experiments o example: 1. randomly chose 60 people, gave instructions on how to get a rat to run a maze 2. job was to teach rat to run the maze, each has 15 rats to run 3. lowest average average time to learn maze  worst time in BB is higher than the highest BD (look to lecture notes for diagram) 4. no experimenter remembered being given reference to brightness of rats o he finds – experimenter expectations influence the data obtained o if you warn an experimenter about bias – high probability of boomerang effect will occur o experimenters who detect “good” data at beginning of experiment tend to repair better and better data as experiment proceeds: 1. with variety of controls experimenter bias cannot be accounted for with intentional bias 2. greater when experimenter can see or have visual contact with participants - subject bias – Orne – when you run an experiment subjects are actively involved in trying to figure out what is going on – they can bias the experiment o characteristics of unintentional 1. people who have a lot of input – volunteers tend to contribute to bias 2. tend to drink coffee, take uppers and tend to smoke 3. seek social approval, intramoody, self-punitive, general symptoms of neuroticism, tend to be first born (more concerned with pleasing)  every experiment requires all 3 types of bias – what confidence can we have in confidence and validity of social psychological facts  biases produce interesting information  BIAS – no objectivity – the best we can hope for is inter-subjective agreement  no science deals with objectivity methods used and resulting “FACTS”  always dealing with intersubjective agreement about what might be the case and it can’t be coerced  agreement has to be spontaneously given What about theories - theories: o Frustration/aggression hypothesis (theory) 1. 4 major concepts used by the authors of the hypothesis:  frustration – condition that exists when movement toward a goal is interfered with  aggression – actions that are designed to injure someone (including self) or something  inhibition – tendency to refrain from aggression because of anticipated negative response  displacement tendency to aggress to targets other than frustrating agents o theorists generate 5 hypotheses with these concepts: 1. amount of frustration is a function of 3 things:  strength of desire for the goal  degree of int
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