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2013-11-25 Colonialism.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2239
Professor
Young- Hwa Hong
Semester
Fall

Description
November 25, 13 Colonial Present Colonialism Compare colonialism with imperialism - Colonialism: foreign control and domination by one power and over a dependent area or people through direct territorial acquisition and policy advocating such control o Direct territorial occupation is the main difference between colonialism and imperialism o Main goal: take over the land so that the foreigners can live on that land  Symbolic and physical removal of the Native population  Assimilation policy or segregation  Institutional mechanisms for colonizing in Canada: education and legal sanctions - Colonialism is the means/method o Can be narrowly defined  Direct control of land - Imperialism is an abstract concept – the agenda o Economic, political, cultural indirect control - Colonialism is one means/method by which imperialism is achieved - Imperialism: the policy, practice of advocacy of extending the power and domination of a nation by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over economic, cultural or political areas/activities o ManyAmerican military bases around the world o Use imperialist power over many nations through their military presence - Powerful nations press less powerful nations into trade of food in the name of free trade o Economic control and domination Essentialist Colonial Discourse - From late 19 century colonization has been premised on the notion that the colonized “Other” is inherently inferior, weak, evil, irrational, infantile and in need of “correct training” - “Civilizing” and “saving” discourse o 19 century discourse inAsia,Africa, LatinAmerica o Central part to essentialist colonial discourse - Idealized individual in 19 century Europe o Reasoning, rational mindset = control  Mind is superior over the body o Idealized well-educated, white man should be educated to control his body and can pursue property ownership  Women do not have reasonable, rational minds so they are not fully human o Men are associated with mind and women are associated with the body  Justifying superiority  Women were considered men’s property o Private property o Nuclear family – men was head of the family, single dwelling allowed for the easy transfer of wealth  Came out of capitalist system o Patriarchal & patrilineal  Male dominance and control over females; tracing through your father’s lineage rather than mother’s o Victorian womanhood  Passive, dependent on father/husband/son, should not enjoy sex (sexually repressed) - Aboriginal principle: o Share all land and share the benefits reaped (no private property) o Collective community  Europeans regarded this as savage and uncivilized o Extended family system, which cannot deal with transferring private property  European’s ‘taught’ and disciplined them into civilization o Social relationships  Some were matriarchal, but a lot were matrilocal or matrifocal or matrilineal  Follow your mother and live with your wife’s family • Women had more power for producing food and distributing their product • In some, only female elders could choose the male political leaders (privileges and rights given to women) • Women could have more than one sexual partner - The above were used as excuses for colonization o Saving discourse is an essentialist notion by colonizers - Saving discourse: The ‘savages’ needed to be saved by the superior countries’ men - “Noble savage”: looks at the colonized trapped in fixed past o Pure from the capitalist nature, not polluted by western ideas, one with nature (noble; can talk with nature – special talent)  Different than corrupted individuals in capitalist society o They are doomed - Description of the colonized as feminine (to be dominated naturally by the masculine and active west) o Emasculated and infantilized colony o Colonized: Nation is described as feminine (passive, helpless)  Korean,Aboriginal, etc.  In contact with the colonizers, the colonized men lose their masculinity and are infantilized  The men sometime react to the colonizers very negatively • Aggressively and angrily and violently • If you hate someone so much, you become like that person o The colonized men resemble the colonizer men  Colonized women have a difficult position • They can be criticized as betrayers by the colonized men for talking about women’s issues • They need to find a way not to trigger their male counterparts’ aggression o Colonizer: Japan and Russia have masculine, strong traits in the cartoon - Emphasis on the glories of the ancient past (and description of the current state of affairs as decrepit and corrupted) o Focus on the traditional aspect of the colonized, their development ceased - Modern example: Don’t look at the root causes of poverty of the children in Africa, we are imperialists and ignore the true need What happens if we leaveAfghanistan? Extreme form of domestic violence is used and generalized to all women The poor women in the Muslim world need help so the west starts war rather than building schools for these women to access education - JustifiesAmerican imperialism http://content.time.com/time/covers/asia/0,16641,20100809,00.html - These notions are still alive and well in racialized representations of “other” women from Middle East,Asia,Africa and so on - For example, the “veil,” female circumcision, “passivity” of EastAsian women - Problematic notion: believe women in the west are liberated, but the “other” women do not have gender equality and are constantly suppressed by men and patriarchy o The west should not interfere, these women have agency o Do they examine the gender inequality in their own culture? - Post colonialism: continuation, not the end of colonialism Colonial Present - Income level: In 2002, the average individual income for Registered Indians was 60% of that for other Canadians (about 50% of Registered Indian families live at or below LICOs, compared with about 17% of all Canadian families) - Health: The average age of death forAboriginals was still 6.3 years below that of the average for non-Aboriginal Canadians (2
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