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2014-01-06 Immigration.docx

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Sociology 2239
Young- Hwa Hong

January 6, 14 Immigration - Terms o Other forms of capital (economic, cultural, social) - Theories in International Migration o Patterned, produced, and structured based on human conditions - Racialized and gendered immigrant women in the Canadian labour market “Distinction” (Boudieu, 1979) - Concept of basis of class o Capital → class position o All capitals are interrelated  Economic capital → cultural capital (university) → social capital (professional networking) → more economic capital - Economic capital: ownership of economic assets o Material things, property, and finances - Social capital: power secured through family members or other networks o Professional associations, community centers, school, church o Information and social network → social position & employment - Cultural capital: educational qualifications, distinction in the world of arts and sciences – may be obtained in institutional settings o Embodied cultural capital  Cultural practices become part of you – cannot be separated or given away • Intelligence, skills, knowledge  Gained through classed socialization processes  Combined with economic properties o Objectified cultural capital  Collection of expensive artifacts/objects based on class position  Can be separated and given away/transmitted to others o Institutionalized cultural capital  Gaining qualifications  Institutionalized learning processes and acknowledged by professional associations - Immigrants struggle to gain social capital (socialize with similar others/limited – doesn’t help with integration in mainstream market), and cultural capital (their qualifications are not recognized/valued in Canadian labour market) Theories in Migration - Push factors: war - Pull factors: liberalism, multiculturalism, need for new population - Human capital theory o Based on liberal notion o People move to find employment and financial rewards more commensurate with their education and training o Weakness: Fails to account for the role of institutional factors such as racial and gender discrimination  See trend at individual level (micro) – not broader social structure  Based on premise of liberalism and social mobility • Doesn’t recognize structured barriers in the labour market - World systems theory o More critical o Draws attention to broader elements such as political economy (liberalism), institutional factors (point system), international relations (colonial links), migration networks (social networks established in other countries – follow the fam) o Structured linkages Neoliberal Order in Immigrant Policy - 1967 point-system: o Based on education (high), age (young), occupation (knowledge based economy), experience (high), pre-arranged employment (highly rare/unattainable), knowledge of English or French, personal suitability (adaptability), and the destination of settlement in Canada Immigrants are divided into two categories Neoliberalism regulates how people think and act - Only rich people can move around and have citizenship status – based on inequality (not human capital – it is all structured) - Deserving immigrants o Favouring highly skilled and education and/or wealthy immigrants through independent class and business class
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