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8 - Goffman & Stigma Chpt 3.odt

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Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2259
Professor
Prof
Semester
Fall

Description
Goffman & Stigma – Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Overview • Examines: ◦ The stigmatized individual's sense of self ▪ “Ambivalence of self” ◦ Context that impact or affect this sense of self ▪ “In-group/us” vs. “out-group/them” ▪ “Own” vs. “wise” ◦ The nature of these contexts ◦ Ambivalence of self due to: ▪ Mixed messages from in-groupAND out-group ▪ Degree of seriousness that you take your stigma to be (conditional vs. genuine) ◦ Stigmatized person more than normally want a distinct sense of self ◦ Even if a stigmatized person is told they are accepted in society it is often times conditional Identity • Social Identity: social expectation of the individual—based on constructs of stereotypes, assumptions, and relationships • Personal Identity: the information that just you knows about yourself • Ego Identity (Erkison): an individual's “felt” identity—a subjective sense of his/her own situation, continuity, and character ◦ How someone personally perceives themselves, but often is influenced by their social identity ◦ How do they create images of themselves, passing, management, etc ◦ What an individual comes to personally experience based on social and personal situations ◦ Basically, comprised of BOTH social and personal identity IdentityAmbivalence • IdentityAmbivalence: you receive mixed messages about your place in society—you learn the standards of the “out-group”...yet you are said to belong to the “in-group” ◦ Astigmatized individuals experiences this ambivalence due to the gap between his/her “reality” and that he/she applied to him/herself ◦ About not wanting to align with the in-group, but also don't want to be stigmatized by society ◦ Acquires identity standards that he/she apply to themselves, but they know that they fail to conform to them—can cause people to experience different types of ambivalence • Expressions of identity ambivalence: ◦ Fluctuations in identity ▪ Individual will often feels fluctuations of identity (oscillation same as fluctuation) ◦ Associating with their “own” ▪ Might associate with similar people who are stigmatized—easier to identify ◦ Stratification of their “own” ▪ When the individual creates a hierarchy of people who are stigmatized ◦ Social alliances (in-group vs. out-group) ▪ The more allied with normals, the more the individual will see themselves in non- stigmatic terms ▪ Stigmatized might not align with normals or vise versa Experiences ofAmbivalence • The stigmatized experiences ambivalence due to: ◦ Stereotyping: acting the label that normals have imputed on him/her ▪ They have internalized the views of society ◦ In-Group Purification: stigmatized individuals normifying their behaviour while “cleaning up” the conduct of others ▪ Often times when people are making negative comments about a stigma, the stigmatized person tried to fix that situation ◦ Nearing: when an individual is in contact with normals and come close to having an uncomfortable situation they will try to prevent the normals from feeling uncomfortable Professional Presentations Codes of Conduct • The stigmatized individual will have certain codes for how to manage themselves in varying situations • Examples of codes: ◦ Patterns of revealing and concealing ▪ These patterns are different in every situation ◦ Formulae for dealing with “ticklish” situations ▪ Situations where stigmatized individuals feel very uncomfortable ◦ Support to be given to “own” ▪ The amount of support/alliance the individual has will similarly stigmatized people ◦ Type of fraternization with normals ▪ How does the stigmatized person interact with normals and how much ◦ Suggested reactions (ignore/react) to prejudice ◦ Balance between being “normal” and different ▪ In certain situation a stigmatized person may feel normal and in other instances they may feel very different ◦ Facts about his “own” to generate pride ▪ When someone is stigmatized, often times they will try and find positive facts about that stigma so as to not appear as bad ◦ Facing up
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