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Lecture 4

Lecture 4.doc

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Sociology 2259
Pamela Cushing

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Classical Theories of Deviance Lecture 4 Classical Period - Stuff that came out of this period are still used in law today o People had started seeing more of the world o Changed ideologies in the world - Deviance as a rational calculation occurred o The deviant is a rational actor  not someone who is possessed - This took like fucking forever to come about Deviance: the behaviour that eroded the greater good of society - Torture became futile  didn’t fix anything - Deterrence was emerging as the new way to control deviance o Swift and severe punishment through court - The cost (punishment) of deviance was higher than the personal gain someone would gain from being deviant - Punishments would also fit the crime, wouldn’t be too cruel - The accused wouldn’t be all alone either  they’d have some support The Classical Paradigm 1. Rational, hedonistic actor with free will 2. Perception of Opportunity 3. Assessment of Risk 4. Do I conform or go against the grain [There’s a chart on the internet comparing the two years – add it here] 5 Central Tenants of The Classical View 1. People are hedonistic 2. People have free will 3. Society represents a social contract  give up those hedonistic pleasures to be a member of the social order 4. Punishment: sufficiently severe and predictable 5. Goal of Society: the greatest good for the greatest numbers Social Justice in the 18 Century - Change in thinking was spurred by several factors: o Law and punishment were arbitrary, unpredictable, torturous etc…  Often public tortures  it goes it goes it goes it goes guiilllllloootttiinnnnneeeeeeeee BITCH o Operated at the whims of judges  they were paid off by rich douchebags o Life was chaotic, social order was just bonkers - Gin Lane  painting characterising the time  babies falling down stairs people just going straight up crazy o The reaction to this was just “hey let’s just be more strict” The Philosophes - The Philosophes  a bunch of smart ass philosophers who’d hang out in France who’d try to apply reason to everything o They pretty much started the whole modern way of thinking o They hated monarchies and all of that terrible shit - Faith in reason rather than church - Most were diests – they believed in God as the creator of the universe but rejected church rituals and the authority it had Voltaire - Most influential of the philosophes - He publ
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