Sociology 1020 Lecture Notes - Gloria Steinem, Grade Inflation, John Humphrey Noyes

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 1020
Professor
Images of Society Notes Term Two
Chapter 15 Changing Families
Author : Roderic Beaujot
- both sexes are getting married later in life (versus 70s) often due to education or work
- average duration of marriage has decreased
- decline in religious homogamy
- men are consistently older than women
o consequently, male are more established and tend to earn more money
- Goldscheider and Waite’s “propensities to marriage” : influence of long-term employment on willingness
to marriage (plus for men, negative for women “buy out” of marriage)
o increased propensity to put off marriage until both are economically stable (Sweeney)
- separation and divorce rates have increased since the 1960s, but most common situation is still for people to
be married only once
- marriages are possibly becoming more selective, with more cohabitation and less actual marriage
- increased risk of children divorcing in later years if parents divorced or have higher levels of education
o but presence of own children reduces rates (without kids there are weaker bonds between parents)
- decrease in instrumental functions fulfilled by families results in less holding them together
o less economic interdependence, wife can leave dual-income families easier
o least likely to happen, however, when children are young (most interdependent stage)
- divorce represents a natural solution to marriages that don’t provide mutual gratification (expressive
function), problems such as abuse, unfaithfulness, or lack of love and respect
- probability for divorce is higher for those who marry young
o instrumental : less economic stability, less mobile during pregnancy which results in an inability to
further education,
- divorce is becoming more widely accepted in society (grounds expanded in 1968)
- propensity to remarry has declined (1991 : 64% men and 52% women)
o often associated with economic prosperity from independence
- decrease in overall rate of relationship involvement (15% for women and 18% for men)
o young people put off living together, common-law relationships end more frequently than
marriages, current marriages break up sooner than those of previous generations, and tendency to
remarry is declining
- co-residence of elderly people with their families have declined
Chapter 17 Experimental Family Organization: An Historico-Cultural Report on the Oneida Community
Author : William M. Kephart
- founded in 1848 by John Humphrey Noyes in New York State
- community of hundreds of people living in one communal home called the Mansion House and functioning
as one large family in both social and sexual (although non-conventionally) ways
- women wore knee-length skirts with loose pants underneath and had bobbed haircuts (VERY different)
- children were raised with a “we” not “I” mentality
- men were to approach council if intercourse was desired with a woman, she was intern approached by
council and could confirm or deny the request (although denial was rare)
- impregnating the woman was not allowed (coitus reservatus, or not coming, was practiced)
- elite group was founded that was allowed to reproduce, and within ten years 58 children were born
o ensured group was chosen carefully and economic provisions were established
- when born, children were allowed to be under the control of their mother for 15 months, and was then given
to the community and not permitted to see the mother “in that way” afterwards
o this is not to say that children were not nurtured and showed affection interviews state otherwise
- no members of the community have spoken poorly of their times
- thirteen original children are still alive today (1993)
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Document Summary

Both sexes are getting married later in life (versus 70s) often due to education or work. Men are consistently older than women average duration of marriage has decreased: consequently, male are more established and tend to earn more money. Decrease in instrumental functions fulfilled by families results in less holding them together less economic interdependence, wife can leave dual-income families easier least likely to happen, however, when children are young (most interdependent stage) Divorce represents a natural solution to marriages that don"t provide mutual gratification (expressive function), problems such as abuse, unfaithfulness, or lack of love and respect. Probability for divorce is higher for those who marry young instrumental : less economic stability, less mobile during pregnancy which results in an inability to further education, Divorce is becoming more widely accepted in society (grounds expanded in 1968) Propensity to remarry has declined (1991 : 64% men and 52% women: often associated with economic prosperity from independence.

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