Sociology 1020/1021E- Luton

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6 Sep 2013
Department
Professor
Gender Relations
SEX
biological category based on physiological & anatomical difference
ascribed status born with; result of cell formation
we dichotomize sex when it runs along a continuum
o M F
sex is natural but biologically determined
1-3% babies born ―intersexed‖— not directly clear from external genitals
if male or female
o over 90% surgically reassigned as females
being male or female, in society‘s mind, is biologically determined
o males/females should act a certain way
gender is a social category but culturally defined: what is appropriate
masculine or feminine behavior
Sex Codes: Premarital Sex Standards
1. abstinence standard forbid
old
2. double standard only men
old
28% forbid for women
3. love standard depends
love and respect: present now
22% societies
4% mildly disapprove
4. fun standard permit
for pleasure, as long as both are consenting
40% societies
regulate sexual behavior outside of marriage
Risman: C change massive change in last generation
do we disrespect those who have too much casual sex?
1. Egalitarian Conservatives
lose equal respect for men and women
2. Egalitarian Libertarians
do not lose respect for either gender
3. Traditional Double Standards
lose respect for women but not men
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4. Reverse Double Standard
lose respect for men not women
mostly sorority women
GENDER
a social category
set of social attitudes that can vary form culture to culture and over time
within a society
gender norms: rules specifying appropriate behavior for each gender-
‗gender scripts‘
we determine what is normal by defying the norms
gendered DOL: acting ―gender appropriately‖ in both unpaid and paid
labor arenas
men more demanding jobs, women more housework
Becoming Our Gender
process of internalizing genders
gender socialization about performing gender; anyone can perform any
gender
gender identity: self perception as male or female
based on social expectations for individuals: achieved status
learned, established at 18 months 3 years old
master status main attribute through which all other behaviors
are based
Hughes: powerful aspect of self-concept which develops in accordance
with the individual‘s gender and the social definitions of that gender
within the larger gendered order
a set of structural relations through which people are treated
differently because of their gender direct how males and females
should act
a structured force determining masculine/feminine behaviors within
a given society
o mostly patriarchy: system of dominance in which cultural,
political and economic structures have been created by men
and are maintained for the benefit of men
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traits associated with men more valued than traits
associated with women
how patriarchy dominates is culturally specific
macro-level
there is always a gendered order and a performed gender
Gender Intensification
process by which people are forced to hyper-differentiate their own
gender (ie. appearance and behavior)
perpetuated by mass media and advertising in pursuit of money
adolescence is key period of this identity manipulation
―Tough Guise‖ film, Jackson Katz
Wizard of Oz, revealing masculinity (lack of) mask, threat of
violence
only show what is identified as manly
o learned from media, family, community
o construct cultural violence as a norm
violence often cynical
male violence on males
sometimes a survival mechanism damages psyche
always focus on subordinate groups
men create the images of social norms for men
dominance functions by not being talked about, unexamined
Effects of Gender Intensification
ill prepares men and women for roles they will later perform
impossible standards low self-esteem & high dissatisfaction
emphasizes the dominant/submissive nature of the relationship between
men and women perpetuates gender inequality
brings about potential hazards: locks men in, denies female‘s
agency
Gender Stereotypes
stereotype: occurs when people believe others possess certain
characteristics simply as a result of being a member of a particular group
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