Sociology 1020 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Meritocracy, Core Countries, Intersectionality
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Tuesday, November 20, 2018
Stratiﬁcation IV: Nation; Master Categories and
Introduction to Sociology!
-Position within global stratiﬁcation!
•Sociology has been a study of Western societies!
•Soc and anthropology were close ∴ overlap!
-Soc was the study of societies and anthro was the study of cultures!
-Some anthros went to study places where there wasn’t a recognizable social
-New Era, Central Africa: Asked if they have a sense of law; do they know what it
is? do they know how it’s enforced? !
•Wouldn’t ask this if studying France, US, etc.!
•Distinction: society and culture!
•= container model of society: if we were to conduct a sociological study of
Canada, we would look @ the geographically deﬁned territory of Canada!
-REMEMBER: nation ≠ state (nation-state concept from POLISCI1020E)!
-No presumption that there are interactions between countries that impact this!
-Study how they distinguish from one another: comparative analysis !
-That’s not how the world works; no hermetically sealed notion of a nation state;
cultures interact and aﬀect one another !
-Most of history, ‘society’ as a concept, was taken for granted!
•Why does nation matter? !
-Globalization: 3 diﬀ forms!
1. Culture: intermixing of cultural practices; usually dominated by US!
Tuesday, November 20, 2018
2. Economic: everything you own comes from somewhere, the majority of it
not from Canada!
3. Political: bilateral/multi-lateral trade deals, UN, EU, NAFTA, etc.!
-Migration (processes associated with the decision of migration)!
•Push factors: reasons someone leaves their current place of residence;
economic, cultural, political/military; Latin American asylum-seekers’ migrant
caravan— why are they leaving? Bad economy, political/military situation!
•Pull factors: qualities/characteristics that attract someone to another state!
•How people are treated upon arrival in receiving state: expatriate v immigrant
— no diﬀerence other than the country they come from; European?
Expatriate; Africa? Immigrant!
-Social inclusion and social exclusion: generated in part by nation as a master
category; how society draws its borders; who’s included? who’s excluded?
Whose education is good enough?!
•audit studies: how people’s resumés are perceived depending on the
-Men’s resumés are treated more seriously than women’s !
-Anglo-sounding names are treated more seriously than non-anglo-sounding
-Someone receiving a medical degree in Argentina would have to re-do a
part of their medical schooling once they arrive; someone from Europe
-Material basis of stratiﬁcation: the “birth lottery” and ascribed statuses!
•How you were born, to whom, and where, determine a large part of your life:
opportunities, abilities, survival!
•World systems theory (Wallerstein): extends Marx’s analysis of Capitalism; argues
that there’s a structure built into the globe that hierarchises/stratiﬁes countries
based on the nature of their economy!
-Top: core countries; highly developed, capitalists, service workers; G7!