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Lecture on Socialization

Course Code
SOC 1020
Kim Luton

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- Mid-Term
- November 12
- 9 - 10 am
- second floor SSC
- find a room
- bring your student card and pencil
- textbooks (images, and intro)
- lectures
- everything
To what extent are you in the culture, or is the culture in you?”
“ Double Involvement” - biography, history, minue
- we are produces of our culture
- we are producers of our culture
- cultural transmission (links the generation)
- it is needed to suppost and maintain social structures
- it passes on cultural elements
- it is a life long process
- how do you become a member of a culture?
Whose theory?
1. Durkheim
2. Mills
3. Weber
4. Giddens - Double Involvment
Berger: a process by which people learn to be members of society
Starts with “EPIGENISIS”: DNA
- everyone is born with epigenisis
- if there is no socialization, there is no use for the epigenisis
It is a lifelong process (most intensive in early childhood).
It is an interactive process.
Cultural assumptions imbedded in actions
- 13 years old
- isolated for 13 years of her life
- she couldnt walk, or barely walk
- she had to be rehabilited
- she had a bunny walk, and didn't say anything
- she explored the world as a baby
- feral child
Primary Socialization

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- most important stage
Occurs from birth through adolescence.
Family - the most important agent.
It is both intentional and unintentional.
Largely imposed, although some reciprocity in parent-child interactions.
- they learn what to expect from others, what others will expect from them
- they will be delated if not
Precursor for successful socialization
Development of interpersonal/cognitive skills & sense of self
Attachment Styles:
- Secure (looking to provide infants and children, give them a good enivornment
and give them guide lines)
- Avoidant (parenting style, they dont what to have anything to do with them,
children do learn about it)
- Anxious/Ambivalent (gives kids a tension, they can either truth them or not)
- all these attachments follows them
- this is how you interact with others, and we don't realize it
Secondary Socialization
Adolescent & Adult Socialization
Occurs throughout the life cycle - anticipate and adjust to new experiences.
Reciprocal process.
Based on previous experience.
Difference from primary socialization: both more choice and more limits.
- you have more reposibilities
Adolescent Socialization
- takes place informaly
- gain image
- independence
3 Sets of Discontinuities - Benedict
Children socialized (more experience):
1. Non-responsible roles (do what you want) (very little training on responsible,
lots of mistakes)
2. Submission (making informed decisions) (when did we great pratice)
3. Shielded from Sexuality (puberty, make decisions about sexuality, and how to
conduct themselves)
Disjunctive Socialization
- a lack of experience

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Types of Secondary Socialization
Anticipatory Socialization (Adult)
- Merton: learning overt behaviours and values found in statuses and groups
which one will likely enter.
- “Total institutions” replace inadequate /defective roles
- Goffam made up total institutions
- military, jails, hospitials
- resocialize those who are devient
- creates an envirnoment where they are controled 24 hours
- they fix you
- Stripping- mortifying
- they strip you of everything, starts from the begining
- the idea is that they would not repeat their offences
Total Institutions
Do you think ‘boot camp’ will successfully re-socialize YO’s?
1. Yes - 31%
2. No - 69%
- the community will set you back
Key Agents of Socialization
Family – 1degree Socialization
Peers –>
School –> = 2degree Socialization
Media ->
Peer Group
- peer pressure
- comformaty
- stare common interests
Importance: development of a frame of reference not based on adult authority.
It assumes great influence in adolescence (when emotional, social, and
independence begin to develop).
Peer-group influence is tempered by parental influence, as parents control
scarce and valued resources
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