Sociology 1020 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Counterculture, Structural Inequality, Labeling Theory
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•Deviance is the recognized violation of cultural norms
•two views about deviance:
•objective view: presence of certain characteristics deﬁnes deviance
•subjective view: no shared, observable characteristics that deﬁne deviance
•objectivists are moral absolutists
•subjectivists are moral relativists
•social typing process
Functions of Deviance
•Sets moral boundaries
•Mark bottom layer of society
Differential Association - Sutherland
Learn to be deviant just as one learns to conform – same process!
“the process by which the label ‘deviant’ becomes attached to some individuals and
some forms of behaviour”.
It is not the behaviour but the audience’s reaction that determines whether an act is
-Lemert non-conformist acts which occur before a formal or legal response to the
- Lemert behaviour that occurs after primary deviance and results from the
transformation of an individual’s self concept from someone who simply did something
“bad”, to some who sees themselves as “bad”.
- learned through socialization in a deviant subculture or environment
- uses techniques of neutralization -justiﬁcation for deviance
- primary and secondary stages
- relative to society’s labeling an individual deviant
- relative to an individual’s reaction to being labeled deviant
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