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Kim Luton (100)
Lecture 3

Sociology 1020 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Counterculture, Structural Inequality, Labeling Theory


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 1020
Professor
Kim Luton
Lecture
3

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Deviance is the recognized violation of cultural norms
two views about deviance:
objective view: presence of certain characteristics defines deviance
subjective view: no shared, observable characteristics that define deviance
Objective view
Subjective view
objectivists are moral absolutists
statistical rarity-
societal harm-
societal reaction-
normative violation-
subjectivists are moral relativists
social typing process
description
evaluation
prescription
Functions of Deviance
Unite people
Moral holiday
Provide scapegoats
Sets moral boundaries
Mark bottom layer of society
Warning sign
Social change
Theoretical Perspectives
symbolic
interactionism
Differential Association - Sutherland
Learn to be deviant just as one learns to conform – same process!
Labeling Theory
“the process by which the label ‘deviant’ becomes attached to some individuals and
some forms of behaviour”.
It is not the behaviour but the audience’s reaction that determines whether an act is
deviant.
Primary Deviance
-Lemert non-conformist acts which occur before a formal or legal response to the
behaviour occurs.
Secondary Deviance
- Lemert behaviour that occurs after primary deviance and results from the
transformation of an individual’s self concept from someone who simply did something
“bad”, to some who sees themselves as “bad”.
Deviance Amplification
Summary
Deviance:
- learned through socialization in a deviant subculture or environment
- uses techniques of neutralization -justification for deviance
- primary and secondary stages
- relative to society’s labeling an individual deviant
- relative to an individual’s reaction to being labeled deviant
Deviance
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