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Sociology 2151A/B
William Marshall

Lecture 2 September-19-12 3:30 PM  New developments were mainlylocated aroundwater  POET ○ Population: sizeinfluenceshow they behave,their socialorganization, ○ Organization:morepeoplemorerules,complicatedsocial structure ○ Environment: physical enviro,eg. Fresh water,plants,animals,etc. ○ Technology:irrigation, controlling enviro,domesticating animals,transportation  Early societieswere nomadic in nature ○ Mostly timespent findingfood and eating ○ Carried mainly things thathelpswith attaining food (eg.Hunting tools) ○ Carried little bitof clothing,something tocarrywater ○ Minimal material possession ○ Peopledidn't livevery long,lifeexpectanciesof 35yrs, 80% infant mortality,birthing was difficult  Emergence of Agri: niceplaceto plant crops,and would go seasonally to live.Animals were also domesticated and used ○ Use of irrigation to water thefield ○ Susbsistenceagri: grow enough to feed themselves,but not enoughfor significant growth inpopulation  Communities started off as verysmall,13-15 people.Any morepeoplecouldnot be supported in those areas  9000-5000BCE: domestication of animals  Took 6000-7000 years for them to get really big  Gordon Childe Characteristics of Cities ○ Permanency:year-round settlements,and for several years.Long-lasting,but NOT forever. ○ Non-Agri specialists: people didn’thave to spend alltheir time getting food,part of it washaving soldiers tofight of enemies and un-wanted residents.  Would need social hierarchyand rules of behaviour(regulateinteraction patters,etc.)  At firststartedwithstrength =power,then become moreknowledge(religiousleaders) ○ Taxationand Capital Accumulation: ppl aresettleddown,so they start to accumulatematerialpossessions (surplus food => save food/seed),pay part of yourcropto soldier/priestto protectyour crop for you (they taketheir "commission" for stories it,ie. Taxation). ○ PublicBuildings: requiredto storecropsurplus,dwellingsfor priest/religious figures,where elitelive,building stadiums/amphitheatres,gamecourts, ○ Ruling Class: required to set the rules…? ○ Writing and numbers: needed for accounting,record-keeping (accountinggrains),writedownstuff for predictive sciences ○ Predictive'sciences': using geometry,how to build things,how to plantcrops, knowing about stars,etc. ○ Art: buildings don't just function,but have to look nice,aesthetics to showpower,prestige,and wealth,eg.swords as decoration,look impressive,made of gold and precious stones ○ Trade: get the preciousmaterialsthrough trade,usebarter system(onefood for another) ○ Residential basisfor citizenship: if you livein the community you're a citizen,you get stuff other peopledon't get (right to vote, excess food,protection) ○ Above characteristics used to define firstcities, compared to societiesthat existed before them ○ 5000-10,000BCE = pre-historic =beforewriting  Stratification: some people hadmore than others,one piece of land keepsgetting divided into more pieces, problem arises when land isn't enough to live of off or maintainsocial economic status  Primogeniture:protectsfamily and status, the first borninherits ○ Was done for economic viability,not favoritism ○ Was used toprotectdescendants from problem of stratification  Multi-Generational families:everyonefrom grandparents,to grandchildren livingtogether. ○ Hetrolinear:follow lineof father's ○ Peoplestartedhad morechildren survived => need morechangein rules of inheritance and morecomplicated rules of social organization  Peoplein ruralpreferstatusquo, peoplein cities wereinnovators (tech change,etc.)  Coulddetermine #of children bypelvisdistortionin bones  Lookedat buildings and graves to estimate population  Lookedfor artifacts to determinewhat they ate, etc. FreshWater Trade Buildings => Villages => CITIES *All thesethings happened OccupationalSpecialization simultaneously Domestication Increasingpopulations Of plants/animals Crop surplus Socio-economic stratification  Different civilizationsfrom allaround world,they advanced independently,tookseveralthousandsof years  Urban: 5000+ people as defined by UN,urban explosion reallyoccurred in 1800s (industrial revolution) ○ Peopleliveseparate fromwhere they work  Urban growthwasn'ta continuousprocess ○ Eg. Jericho had point whereno one livedthere Morelike a wave goingupwards,somecitiesand societies decline(comeand go) Lecture 2 Page 1 ○ Morelike a wave goingupwards,somecitiesand societies decline(comeand go) ○ Civilizationsalways under attack of environment and enemies Lecture 2 Page 2 Lecture 3 September-26-12 3:25 PM Environment Fresh Water Social Organization Trade Buildings => Villages => CITIES *All these things happened Technological Occupational Specialization Change simultaneously Domestication Increasing populations Of plants/animals Crop surplus Socio-economic stratification Population  Urban Ecology: ○ Technological Change ○ Environment ○ Population ○ Social Organization  Crop surplus allows for bigger population, trade, and stability of food supply ○ Allows for specialization, not everyone needed to make food  Urban Revolution: a social revolution, how people interact changed, gender roles, etc. ○ Cities most expand where there were more rules and organization, crop surpluses ○ China, Mesoamerica, Andes, also had rise of cities, but followed little bit after Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Indus ○ Societies became more complicated closer to 3000-4000yrs ago  Industrial revolution: separation home and work, "sold their work" rather than goods  Ancient Athens video on youtube, 'Rome Reborn'  POET ○ Social Revolution had rules and regulations to control people, elite would control  Malthusian Stage: ○ 1000BCE: "Greece" ○ There were many different cities, they were warring ○ Athens was big city at the time,  had knowledge, change in behavior patterns  Revolved around citizenship  Believed they were linked to the Gods, decedants,  rights that nobody else had □ Rights of voting  "polis": means city □ Living within in city made superior to living outside, making them special  Very stratified □ Lots of slaves, elite at top, and some in middle  People lived in apartment buildings and boarding houses  Cities became bigger after decline of Greece ○ Rome, rose after Athens  1 mill people  Theatres, temples, public buildings, large buildings  Large roads  People stratified, whether they were Roman citizens, slaves, free men  Most urbanized up until that time period (1/4 lived in city at the time)  People around city had to pay tax (tribute), they did hard work and shipped goods into the city everyday  Unemployment high in Rome, □ lots of people in 'dough line' to get food □ Others went to 'the games' , gladiator, something to entertain the masses □ Left people with lots of leisure time  5th Century (476CE) Roman Empire collapsed ○ Dark Ages  End to art, science, knowledge, society atrophied  Followed after collapse of Roman Empire  Time period of Feudal system, where people sell their lives, and their children's lives for protection  Outside walls, no rules, barbaric  No trade, isolated entities  Small populations, 1/10 of what they were at time of Roman Empire  Control of Catholic Church dominated society  No reward for innovation  Switched back to subsistent agriculture (enough to feed yourself, or the town)  "village lifestyle in the physical space of a city"  1000yrs ago, Catholic Church starts Crusades ○ Crusades-1000 yrs ago  Battle for "Holy Land"  Popes promised forgiveness, and protection for life, etc  This allowed for increase in trade routes, exchange of ideas and goods  Art, innovation started coming back  Start of seasonal fairs  Changes in crop rotation, plough designs, etc. (technological change)  Expansion of cities Lecture 3 Page 3  Expansion of cities  Crusaders brought back plague/black death, from India or Middle East ○ Plague/Fleas/Black Death  (1345-1350)1/4 of population of Europe wiped out, (by 1400) 1/3 of Europe wiped out  Cities hit the hardest, basically where the catholic church had most control  Wiped out control of catholic church, and feudal system (popes and kings are dead)  Most cites lost 50% of population  European/Christian way of life destroyed  People started seeing holy people were dying, so people stopped caring about religion and started doing whatever they want => lawlessness increased dramatically ○ Renaissance = Rebirth, around 500yrs ago  Italians decided they wanted their cities to be beautiful  Hired planners and people to plan/build cities, eg. Leanardo DaVinci hired  wanted to show how powerful their cities are (eg. Venice, Florence, Milan)  Nations didn't exist at this time period, cities were nation  Cities' peoples didn't trust people outside of their cities, needed standardization  Monetary unit required for standardization (eg. Italy's lira) □ This way people now know how much stuff is worth  Unified law, standardized weights and measures, currency □ Increased growth in business class, more trade less isolation  Growth of urban populations during this time period □ City area intensified □ Garbage, sewage in the streets □ Taller buildings not allowing rain or sun to reach on street □ Taxes were paid on ground cover, NOT airspace (building upward, encourage taller building) □ Cities got very dirty, people started to get sick, and lots of death □ Cities kept growing through immigration  Transitional Phase: (1700-1850)- lasted 200yrs ○ Death rate dropping due to nutritional advances  Eg. Tomato from deadly nightshade family, so people didn't used to eat them. BUT later on they realized it was good for you, and started feed animals better (ie. Better meat) ○ People started realizing sanitation rose, stopped sharing ladle at well  Eg. People using ladle for from the well, shared with travellers, therefore exposure to communicable diseases!  Eg. Started periodically washing the street ○ Fertility rate stayed high, with dropping mortality rate =population explosion  Before needed more kids cause infant morality high and you needed some to survive to take care of them later  important because they were helpful, by age of 3-4yrs they brought in more than they consumed  Religion said to have many children, also traditional reason (my great grandmother had 12 kids so will I) ○ Medicine wasn’t as effective at this time, more likely to kill, until 1900s  Utter lack of antiseptics  Field hospitals were mostly in barns until WW1 ○ Cities growing due to immigration (Net Migration Gains)  John Grant (1690) -Bills of Mortality □ Count of ppl living of London, deaths, births, etc. □ Found their were more deaths than births every single month for 20yrs, but STILL increase in population  Rural areas almost fully occupied, so ppl pushed off the land => partly cause of land regulation/ownership  Changes in city that attracted ppl: industrialization needed workers, tech advances (eg. Flying shuttle- significant improvement in textile industry, compared to old loom => more jobs),  Fogelstrom (City of my Dream) - Daily life in Stockholm □ At the time, average lifetime in city was 10yrs  People sleeping on straw beds (infested with fleas, mice, etc.), everyone slept on one shared mattress => increase death rate  Injuries at work cause unemployment => death  (1500s&1600) problem of dumping sewage in river that they draw drinking water from, ie. E-coli ○ 1700 5.135mill people => 1750 6mill => 1800 9.3mill (very rapid population growth in Europe) => POET allowed for this increase in population ○ Technological change (1750-1800s)  Eg. 1750 Steerable wagons invented, allowed for food to travel greater distances, more quickly, and arrive in better condition  Eg. Windmill came into popular use, coupled with printing press, spread of knowledge farming techniques etc.  London biggest city at time, first time a city reach 1mill people since Rome  Aging style meat, hung up meat, still good to eat  Industrial Age ○ Pre-Industrial:  Demographic: High mortality, high feritlity  Behavioural: Particularistic, Prescribed, Multi-roles per indiidual, traditional mores (ppl do things as they have been done, your dad was blacksmith so then you will be too), no innovations  Political: Religious authority (religion tells you what's good), interpersonal communication (face to face communication), education of the elite (only elite got educated), societal control (ppl can get kicked out of communities)  Spatial: Parochial (narrow scope), close ties to surroundings (don't go far from where you were born), life = neighbourhood, decentralization (everything is close by, like general store)  Societal: Extended family, ethnic cohesion, no middle class, small elite, disadvantaged masses  Economic: Non-monetary exchange, little specialization, herediatry roles, home = workplace, non-standadized workplace (work wherever you happen to be) ○ Urban-Industrial  Demographic: low mortality, low fertility  Behavioral: Universalistic, functionalistic, specific roles, (ppl rewarded for doing things their way, and being specialized)  Political: Secular polity (govt tell you what's good), Elected authority, mass media, rational bureaucracy, Lecture 3 Page 4  Political: Secular polity (govt tell you what's good), Elected authority, mass media, rational bureaucracy, secondary control (police, judicial system), mass education  Regional/nation interdependence (depend on other cities, countries, etc) , specialized roles (for ppl, neighbourhoods, and cities), geographic mobility (moving from place to place throughout society), Central Business District (CBD)[where you can buy products you think you need]  Societal: atomized(nuclear family), ethnic cleavages, destruction of family, functions to agencies (if you need help you contact companies, like police or insurance companies), middle class majority  Economic: Pecuniary based (actions based on money, we value things on $$$), interdependence, capital intensive, division of labour, Socio-economic mobility, standardization (everything regulated and stadardized by government) Lecture 3 Page 5 Lecture 4 October-03-12 3:31 PM  Ppl pushed off land in rural, and pulled into cities ○ Tech advances in agri (push off rural) ○ Industrialization (pull into cities)  Increase in population ○ Increase complexity in city ○ Occupational specialization ○ More complex social structure, growing middle class  During 1800… ○ 2km city radius (people had to walk)  1700s-1800s (transportation gains) ○ Cities got larger because ppl could travel more ○ Rich and poor lived beside each other, divisions on religion, Linguistically, ethnicity ○ Change in transport:Stage coaches, horse-drawn carts ○ Paved roads ○ Land in center became more desirable for commerce due to transportation gains  Warehouses, manufacturing moving out from center  Age stratification: older ppl stayed in center of city, younger ppl moved further out (better housing and could afford to commute) ○ Functions of family changed, used to do everything  Functions transferred to specialized organizations (eg. School system)  Family less important  Role of woman change, less male dominated family structure => become nuclear family  Mid-1800s ○ People started thinking about cities ○ Ferdinand Toennies (father of urban psychology)  Urbanization is negative  Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft (1887) □ Gemeinschaft  In Gemeinschaft ppl worked together for common good  "Community": a place where ppl are like one another (eg. Look same, share values, beliefs, ideas, rules of behaviour etc.)  People connected through familial ties, through history, and tradition  You know about ppl around you very well  Toennies said this is the natural way, the way it always was, BUT was coming to an end... □ Gesellschaft  "Association": a society of different people  Interdependence: you rely on people around you, don't know them, but they do something for you and you for them  Disunity, emotionally cut-off from one another  Everyone is selfish and rational  Family not as important, everyone is a selfish individual  "Artificial":not how humans are meant to live, but how they've come to live ◊ Ppl pushed into the cities, cause that's only where the opportunities are  Toennies liked Gemeinschaft, not Gesellschaft. ○ Emile Durkheim  French sociologist, at University of Paris  Urbanization is positive, normal, natural, and beneficial because allows to reach full potential  (1893) The Division of Labour in Society □ Society is evolving, more and more specialization to minimizeconflict w/ people around you □ Urbanization and industrialization occurring at the same time □ Rural towns being held together by Mechanical Solidarity  You're like the people around you  Social bonds are built around likeness  Called it mechanical because ppl acted as if they're programmed to be a certain way (eg. You go do religious services at certain time of week, just because that's what everybody does)  If you violate the social norms, the entire community chastises you  Entire community takes part in keeping people in line, but also help them etc. => EVERYTHING DONE FOR THE GROUP  Very little specialization  Collective conscious (everybody knows what's right and what's wrong) □ People are now living by Organic solidarity  Way of life of the big city, of the human body (each part does its own function)  Specialization and division of labour  People have to rely on others to do things □ Felt that organic city and mechanical solidarity were equally natural, and if you had to choose select the organic solidified lifestyle  Because organic you can do what you want, exercising free will and rewarded for it (allows for innovation)  In mechanical doesn't allow for individuality, can't advance to full human potential, innovation can't occur because you have to do what you're supposed to do  Urban Psychology ○ Georg Simmel  Talks about how peoples' minds work in cities and small towns Lecture 4 Page 6  Talks about how peoples' minds work in cities and small towns  "The Metropolis and Mental Life" (1905) □ Small town life  Easy-going, slow, same people, face-to-face interaction  Repetitive, the same thing everyday => can learn everything □ City life  Filter out the unimportant from the important  Social Reserve: bombarded w/ so much stimuli, so we filter out the unimportant stuff  Selective Perception (what current psychologists call it): only look at certain things, things we want to look at  Ppl in cities have to be rational and calculating  Apathy: ppl stop caring about ppl around them ◊ Have to rationally choose if you are going to help someone ◊ Apathy is a result of social reserve => do what's in your best interest ○ Max Weber  "The City" (1921) □ Instead of abstract theorizing, went out and collect data □ Did cross-cultural analysis of cities, compared cities from all over the world □ Full urban community: utopian ideal city  Based on trade and commerce  Well-defined marketplace and market functions (place where goods and ideas are exchanged)  Degree of autonomy  Has its own military => history is not progressive => we're going towards something worse, not better  Renaissance cities were the best cities or full urban community, and now going downwards  Cities were worthwhile to observe, as they were different in different parts of world => Methodological concerns □ Cities were valid topics of investigation, life was different at different parts of times (similarity of all the thinkers)  Chicago ○ At the time of WW1, European thinking came to halt cause war stalled function of universities ○ 1850-1890: 30,000 => 1.1 mill, mostly due to international migration from Europe ○ Heterogeneous population, high levels of urbanization ○ City life as mentioned from above 4 thinkers, follow rules of Chicago not family and tradition ○ 1910-1930: Prohibition => spurred black market, social disorganizationwas a way of life ○ 1880s-1890s: University of Chicago established  Dept of sociology established => focus on cities ○ Robert E. Park  Reporter in Chicago  Interest in Social disorganization  Did PHD with Georg Simmel as his advisor after  Emphasis on how you study cities,you study them through experience => Field Research  Started seeing how city is a social organism, all the parts bound together by social processes  Created urban ecology  Freedom and tolerance within city  Less sentimental and more rational people  Formal social structures (eg. Police depts, large-scale bureaucracies)  Erosion of family, increased division of labour Lecture 4 Page 7 Lecture 5 October-10-12 GET NOTES FROM ABDO 1:46 PM   L.Wirth "Urbanism as a way of Life" (1938) ○ City = large, dense, permanent settlement with social and cultural heterogeneity ○ Size: 1) Diversity of characteristics 2) Occupational specialization 3) Increase in impersonal relations (what not who) 4) "loosening of morals" (individuality replaces tradition) ○ Density: intensifies he above 4 1) Ecological specialization 2) Loss of sensitivity to surroundings 3) Increased tolerance 4) Increasing social distance ○ Heterogeneity: Intensifies ALL of the above 1) Increased social mobility (ppl moving up and down in classes poor => rich, don't stay in one class) □ Strive for education because get into higher class 2) Insecurity & instability (apathy & anomie) □ Anomie: left without norms to follow □ See house as a temp dwelling (instability) 3) Standardization; increasing importance of money □ mass production => need standardization □ Don't trust ppl => need standardization □ Causes social disorganization, reduction family, □ Social planning required for things to function well (eg. Police, land-use planning, etc.) ○ Ppl argue that ppl's behaviour aren't determined by size, density, and heterogeneity  Claude Fischer and Subcultural Theory ○ Wirth's size, density, and heterogeneity generate momentum to develop subcultures ○ Confines of cities cause subcultures to influence each other ○ Subculture become characteristic of urban dwellers (eg. Hip hop of urban black community becoming part of mainstream culture) ○ Critical mass: level needed for self-sustaining momentum ○ Subculture develop in city => grows => more people come to city for subculture => grows => and so on… ○ Cities bring more ppl/diversity in contact w/ different subcultures than towns can  Concentric growth of city ○ Loop: zone of transition ○ Zone of Transition:  Ppl living close to factories  Rich, poor ppl ○ First attempt at looking at human behaviour and activity ○ Simplistic, but not realistic ○ Criticisms:  No real perfect circle, half of the circle underwater (in Chicago example)  Homer (1930s) Sector theory ○ Have to look at multiple cities ○ Look at human interaction and environment ○ Collected data of 142 different cities (block by block) ○ Way cities grow isn't always from the center, but radial (pie shaped wedges)  Eg. Rich ppl kept moving further out ○ Growth w/ transportation routes/infrastructure  Multiple Nuclei Theory (Harris and Ullman) ○ Every city is slightly different ○ Irregular shaped => geophysical factors, transportation factors makes each unique  Eg. Rivers and transport lines bind shape of city 1. Wholesale light manufacturing: away from the rich ppl ("wrong side of the tracks")  Low-class residential: also "wrong side of tracks" , live close to work 2. Middle class: bit further off, based on geopolitical, geophysical, and transport 3. High-class: on the much nicer try 4. Heavy Manufacturing: "wrong side", close to transport and blue collar workers 5. Outlying Business districts: shopping malls, attract certain type of ppl (by rich and middle class) 6. Residential suburbs: outside of city, more space 7. Industrial suburb: outside of city 8. Commuters' Zone: richer ppl  Integrated social space model ○ Factoral ecology: use computers ○ Highly mathematical, artificial ○ Take concentral zone, sector, and multinuclei and combine into one  Schwirian and Matre ○ Looked at the big cities in Canada => social status = sectorial ○ Degree of familism (how imp family to ppl) => zonal distribution  Closer to center and CBD less care for family, as move out more family-oriented  Michael J. White -American neighbourhoods (1987) ○ Focus on north American cities ○ Contemporary cities comprised of ONLY 7 elements 1) CORE 2) ZONE OF STAGNATION (dead area around downtown)  What ppl called zone of transition, he said is dead 3) POCKETS OF POVERTY AND VISIBLE MINORITIES Lecture 5 Page 8 3) POCKETS OF POVERTY AND VISIBLE MINORITIES  Ppl that are poor and stuck in city, no money to go anywhere else 4) ELITE ENCLAVES  Ie. Gated communities 5) DIFFUSSED MIDDLE CLASS  Spread out to different areas of city  Homes that meet their needs 6) INSTITUTIONAL ANCHROES (eg. Uni, hospitals, city halls, etc.) 7) EPICENTERS AND CORRIDORS  Epicenter: things that have specialized functions, or pre-existing cities swallowed up by big city  Corridors: areas of travel  Rob McKenzie- Ecological Processes (1925) ○ Cities are not static 1) CONCENTRATION  Not inside city  Regional concept, ppl locate in a particular region (eg. Car manu locate in ON and Michigan, easier to get parts => economiesof scale) 2) CENTRALIZATION  Within city  Activities want to be located near the center of the city to meet specific need 3) DISPERSION  Things moving away from center (eg. Ppl can't pay to live there, and have t live further away)  Works with centralization, to shape the city 4) SEGREGATION  Activities segregate themselves from other  Forced: zoning by-laws, eg. Old apartheid regulation in South Africa  Voluntary 5) INVASION  One group/activity invades the land of another group/activity  Eg. Rich buying out poor ppl housing in downtown core  Minimal intrusion: don't mind a certain type of ppl  Resistance: don't allow certain ppl/activity in area  Abandonment: ppl/activity leave before invasion, eg. Middle-class moving out as lower-class coming in 6) SUCCESSION  The new equilibrium  New natural areas (come about w/o any conscious decision by government) Lecture 5 Page 9 Lecture 6 October-17-12 3:26 PM  Before European settlements in North America wasn't considered to have cities cause didn't meet criteria of Childe ○ Not much occupation specialization ○ Aboriginal settlements were just temporary settlements  Post-European Settlement ○ Europeans came and settled cities ○ Euros knew what cities were like and brought urban mentality  Evolution of Canadian Cities (P.McGahan) ○ Not all cities go through these phases I) Colonial towns (~1600-1750) a. Quebec city (1608) was first established cities b. First tows weren't consider cities, but settled by urbanites c. Euros travelled via water d. Small forts, trading centers => grew slowly => French king didn't care to develop "New France"=> didn't encourage migration 1698- New France population of 15,000 => still didn't meet all Childe's characteristics, but had tech and all from France e. Communities isolated => except when Europeans came f. Towns grew because Euros wanted to protect their investment g. Interest in exporting stuff h. King or queen would give ppl the land II) Commercial Centres (~1760-1850) = occupational specialization a. the settlements meet Childe's criteria of a city 1763- BNA Act, kicked the French out Mercantilism: an early a. British encouraged trade, commerce modern European economic theory and b. Mercantilism: have strong empire by encouraging migration, trade and commerce, "British system that actively people like to buy British stuff" 1776- US fought British and declared independence supported the  Lot of brits that didn't go back migrated north to Canada (Torries) => supported the crown => establishment of colonies
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