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October 11.docx

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Western University
Sociology 2151A/B

October 11, 2012 1895 University of Chicago, Department of Sociology • Robert Ezra Park got his degree, got a job at a newspaper place, left and started studying all around the world. Upon return, he was the chairman of sociology for the university. He said that the way to learn about cities is to go out and watch them (field research). • 3 characteristics in all cities • Modern cities are a commercial enterprise (stole idea from Weber) • There needs to be a complex division of labour (stole idea from Durkheim) • Leads to erosion of tradition (Toennies) • Bureaucracies replace the functions previously performed by families (Weber) • Talked about the media, which replaces face to face communication • Different Psycho-social group • 1916 – 1937: Park was responsible for all sociology things coming out • Park sent out his students to live with Al Capone and his group of mafias • Micro-theory is applied when you are focusing on a certain area (such as a hotel or one block) Louis Wirth (a student of Ezra Park) – “Urbanism as a Way of Life” (1938) • Size, density, heterogeneity • People in cities behave in a different way • City: A large, dense, permanent settlement with cultural and social heterogeneity • He doesn’t define what size “large” actually refers to • Multiplicity of cultures in close proximity, which lead to occupational specialization Size: • Greater number of people interacting, greater potential differentiation • Dependence upon greater number of people, and less dependence on specific people • Association with more people, knowledge of a smaller portion • More secondary contacts (know people by faces) • More freedom for personal and emotional control from intimate groups • Association with more groups but allegiance to single groups Density • Differentiation and specialization • Separation of residence from workplace • Segregation of functions • Segregation of people Heterogeneity • More places are specialized because of the heterogeneity • Uniform became symbolic of role • No common set of values • Predictable routines and everything focused on time • Everything becomes standardized Burges Concentric Zone Model • Criticized for being too simple – he only looked at residential patterns • Failed to tie together the geophysical and the social Homer Hoyt – Sector Model • Claimed that cities didn’t grow in rings, but in wedge-shaped sectors after looking at data between 1900-1936 for 142 cities • Growth was perceived to happen on transportation routes • Using the data
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