Sociology 2151- Lecture 2
Urbanization- more and more people living in urban areas (began 10,000 years ago). People
used to be nomadic (moved from place to place).
Urbanism- urban lifestyle
First city (according to the textbook) Jericho. But we’re not totally sure what the first city was.
Prehistoric- before writing.
People only started to acquire more possessions after they settled down in one place to stay
Broken pottery gives hints that there may have been a city there because nomadic people did
not travel with pottery.
People in the past used to only live to an average of 30 years old. The nomadic lifestyle was not
contusive to living long (health and danger risks). As people start to settle down they start to live
longer and have more children… the population grows.
People began to merge together for common defence against threats. Beginning of the division
of labour. People began to specialize in certain tasks and fields of occupation.
Average cities had only around 50 people because that was the maximum number of people
that could be supported and sustained in the community. People had 6-10 children but the
mortality rate was 50%.
Agricultural villages were growing and communities were becoming more complex.
Occupational specialization meant that things were more efficient. Nomadic people were
generalists; they had to know a variety of trades and skills in order to survive.
Characteristics that differentiate the first cities from their predecessors (According to
1. Permanency – high densities of people that stayed in a general location.
2. Non-agricultural specialists – people have 1 or 2 specialized trades.
3. Taxation and capital accumulation – in order to feed the non-agricultural workers taxes
were necessary. Tax was also necessary for the future.
4. Public buildings – As cities grew and expanded they needed more stable structures to
hold everything. (Taxes were necessary to build these structures)
5. A ruling cl