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Sociology 2151 Evolution of Cities - Lecture 1 (William Marshal)

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Sociology 2151A/B
William Marshall

Sociology 2151- Lecture 10 • Lack of agreement about how to fix problems • Limited resources: money, time, resources • What’s going to happen in the future? • What are the future problems? • We know urbanization is going to continue, cities are going to continue growing and expanding • In 17 years that largest city will most likely be Jakarta increasing 80% (followed by Tokyo) • Expanding cities are usually in Asia and Africa • Most of the world’s growth in the next 20 years will be in the 3 world, (immigration) o not enough resources to absorb the growth o ~1,000,000 people per year o Not enough housing, jobs, water, hydro, anything.  Major problem facing 3 world problems • Not a lot we can do about it • Must start developing smaller cities if we want to spare the larger cities • Cities are polluted o Air, water, noise….. going to get worse o Not a new problem • Ebenezer Howard (utopian planner) planned for cities (similar to tonnies) o Didn’t see much hope for the new larger cities o Unfriendly, unattached to family and tradition o People should be living in the country side, fresh air, green space o No jobs in the country o Cities offered opportunities for employment  Social amenities o “Peaceful path to social reform” – called it “Garden cities of tomorrow” when republished  Create new cities that combine the benefits of the country side with the benefits of the city • Total area = 66,000 acres. Total population = 150,000  One center city surrounded by other small cities  Transit systems connecting all of the cities (inter municipal railway)  People didn’t like that the railroads were everywhere and that factories surround the entire city  1904 he built one of the smaller cities called Letchworth city (max population of 36,000)  It was the only one of these cities that was built for 40 years (1929 was the next one)  Government wasn’t able to invest in these cities because of WWI  British new town act, didn’t rigidly follow Ebenezer’s plan but they did create the basic shape of them  Government paid for some of the areas, moved people out of the larger cities  A lot of the new towns weren’t able to attract industry (weren’t self- standing)  Didn’t elevate the problems of London  Most were homogeneous  Closer they follow the Howard model the more likely they were to be stagnant and fail  Didn’t take a lot of pressure off of the main cities  40 cities x 25,000 (didn’t accommodate a lot of people) Future Urban Forms 1. The “Green City” – Patrick Geddes (didn’t really like the cities, wanted green space, talked about cities gobbling up the country side) o Created an observatory where you could see the country side inside the building o Needed to have green space inside the city 2. The “Dispersed City” – Frank Lloyd Wright o Invented USA architecture (Usonian) o People spread out over the entire landscape o Not highly concentrated o Covered the entire inhabitable landscape of the US o Fixed the problem of high density o Won’t be big cities or heterogeneity o Minimize conflicts by inventing new forms of transportation 3. The “Compact City” – Le Courbousier; P. Soleri o Gillette  Put everyone in one big building that will encompass the entire population in one area  Planned community called metropolis (supposed to be built in Niagara Falls)  Dome is passive solar heating, solar power  Each section was suburban living  Idea was rejected by the city council of Niagara Falls
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