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September 27.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
Sociology 2151A/B
Professor
Prof

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September 27, 2012  • Crop surplus: support for larger population (by way of natural increase or in­migration)  • Urban Revolution: emergence of “civilization” about 500 years ago  • Revolutions were happening simultaneously in different parts of the world  • Civilizations went into decline after the fall of the Roman Empire, around 460 BCE – 1000 AD • Feudal system introduced by the Catholic churches  • Low populations, widely dispersed  • Cities were re­built due to trade (crusades) • Exchange of ideas and knowledge  • Establishment of trade routes  1345 – 1350: Black Plague  • Bubonic plague hit, wiping out entire cities • Ended control of Catholic/Christian churches of Europe (known as the Renaissance) • Modified the cities to function better • Cities began were reasonably small but the population was growing, leading to the development of two­ story houses • As the sizes of houses increases, cities become more unhealthy because there was a lack of  water/sunlight reaching the ground (unsanitary) Demographic Transition Theory • Stage 1: high birth rate + high death rate • Stage 2: high birth rate + low death rate  • Low death rates were a result of nutritional changes for people and animals  • Public health and sanitation measures were also being put into place • Flushing the streets on a regular basis  • Stage 3: low birth rate + low death rate  John Graunt – Bills of Mortality (1960) • Counted how many people were born/died in London • Claimed that population should be decreasing (because the rate of natural increase was insufficient for population  growth), but due to in­migration the population steadily increased P. Fogelstron – City of My Dreams • Claimed that cities were dangerous, dirty and deadly  • i.e. if you moved to Stockholm, your life expectancy was to be 10 years Life in 1700­1800 • Changes in farming, legal, technology pushed people away from the rural area, to opportunities in the city • Some meat was smoked/salted, and left to age. As time progressed, it became infested with maggots and flies  (unsanitary)  • Medicine probably killed more people than it saved • Injuries were dealt with by cauterization (burning it to seal it) • If that didn’t work, they would amputate it using (more than likely) a dirty saw • Massive population growth (considered Phase II of the DTT) • 1700 – 5.125 million | 1750 – 5.7 million | 1800 – 9.2 million  • Kids provided a form of “retirement plan” • Average woman had 10­12 kids – more were surviving than the previous centuries • Birth control was ineffective • Having children was the “Will of God”; tradition 1800­1900 • Medicine developed the use of anti­sceptics  • Because of the rising cost of raising a child, family sizes began to shrink • Secularising: “state­controlled”; people no longer believed the religious diction that children were necessary  • Women started engaging in activities outside of the home (voicing opinions due to changing family structure) • Shift in family structure from kinship to nuclear family  • Invention of the printing press made knowledge easier to disseminate th  19     Century Urban Explosion  1800 
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