Ll 2011 WORLD population reached 7 Billion
Majority of the world’s population lives in cities.
~2/3 of the World’s Urban population live in cities over 100,000 people
~1/3 of the world’s Urban population live in metropolitan areas with over 1,000,000
U.S. (2011) ~313 million – 82% urban (257 million)
Canada (2011) 34.3 million – 81% urban (27.8 million)
Ontario (2010) 13.2 million – 85% urban (11.2 million)
Toronto (2010) 6.4 million – 48% of Ontario’s population.
URBAN oriented disciplines:
• Urban studies
o Urban design and engineering
o Economic analysis
o Spatial Analysis (Urban geography)
o Social Analysis
§ Human Geography
§ Social History
§ Urban Politics
§ Urban Medicine
§ Urban Psychology
§ Urban Sociology
ú deals with urban dynamics (how one group deals
with another group)
Stratification – Who has what. Who has the power to get what they need.
• Society is broken down into different strata, or so cial classes.
MIDTERM TEST (SATURDAY FEB 11, 2012 11:30AM – 1PM IN TH) – 45%
FINAL EXAM (TBA) – 55%
Urbanization – More and more people living in places defined as urban
Urbanism – The way of life associated with cities.
There was a way of thinking that ‘there is a difference between urban living and rural
Things were changing from the old simple way to a new complicated way
Ferdinand Toennies (1887)
• A German ‘sociologist’
o ‘Gemeinschaft’ – a place with a sense of community
§ Everybody shares ideals, everybody knows what is/was
§ Everybody works together for a common good
§ The way of life in a community with a sharing of beliefs etc.
§ Social life is very intimate – people speak the same
language, religion is the same, commonality with regards to
race, ethnicity, etc.
§ Common conceptions of good and evil.
§ Toennies believed that this was the ‘better’ way of life. o Gesellschaft – the way of life associated with the big, industrial
§ Translates roughly as ‘association’
§ People don’t care about others, they don’t want to know
anything about others – people are egotistical and
§ This is typical in the bigger cities.
§ Typified by disunity, individual ity, selfishness
§ Little meaning for individuals, as they constantly move and
§ According to Toennies, this is an artificial agglomeration
§ People have different definitions of right and wrong.
ú This leads to ‘anomie’ – normlessness
§ As cities get bigger, we trust people less, and money
becomes more important
§ People act in their own best interest, rather than putting
others’ interests first.
Emile Durkheim (1893)
• Wrote book ‘Division of Labour’
• Also examined the changing way of l ife from old to new
o Mechanical Solidarity
§ There was a common everything (religion, language, belief,
goals, community, etc)
§ If you violate the rules, you’ve violated the community
ú If you violate a societal norm, you would no longer
ú You never broke rules, because you want to belong.
ú You cant question anything, so you cant develop to
your full human potential.
o Organic Solidarity
§ Like a human body – everybody has a function in society
(like every organ in the human body)
§ There was occupational specialization and a division of
labour – This minimizes conflict in occupations.
§ As long as everybody does their function, then society will
§ You can exercise free will in an organically solidified
community and reach your full human potential.
§ Durkheim thought this was the ‘better’ of the two societies.
Both Toennies and Durkheim see a shift in the way of living, from one
extreme to another.
Georg Simmel (1905)
• A social psychologist by today’s standards
• Wrote ‘The Metropolis’
• He said that everything is habitual and the same. Everything is slow. You
know everything about the people you interact with. The same activities
recur on a routine basis. • You have to use ‘social reserve’
o The urbanite learns to filter out the irrelevant
o This makes people seem apathetic
o You make rational choices, and act in your own interest.
• Alienation – being cut of from one another as a result of social reserve
Around the turn of the century/WW1, urban research and sociology moved to Chi -
• 1850 – pop’l 30,000
• 1870 – pop’l 300,000
• 1920 – pop’l 3,000,000
- The first department of sociology was set up at the University of Chicago, by
• He said that the only way to truly understand a city is through field
• He said that cities have 3 ch aracteristics
o Commercial – market function – lots of specialization
o Complex Bureaucracy – replaced the formal functions of the family
– they decide what happens in the city rather than city/town
o Rational – people have to make choices, therefore l ess
sentimental, religious. More secular.
Louis Wirth (1938)
- Wrote ‘Urbanism as a Way of Life’
• Said cities are large, dense, permanent settlement, with heterogeneity.
• Size - increase in the number of inhabitants of a settlement beyond a
certain limit brings about changes in the relations of people and changes
in the character of the community
o The greater the number of people interacting, the greater the
o Dependence upon a greater number of people, lesser dependence
on particular persons
o Association with more people, knowledge of a smaller proportion,
and of these, less intimate knowledge
o More secondary rather than primary contacts; that is, increase in
contacts which are face to face, yet impersonal, superficial,
transitory, and segmental
o More freedom from the personal and emotional control of intimate
o Association in a large number of groups, no individual allegiance to
a single group.
• Density – Reinforces the effect of size in diversifying individuals and their
activities, and in increasing the structural complexity of the society.
o Tendency to differentiate and specialization
o Separation of residence from work place
o Functional specialization of areas – segregation of functions
o Segregation of people: city become a mosaic of social worlds
• Heterogeneity – Cities products of migration of peoples of diverse origin.
Heterogeneity of origin matched by heterogeneity of occupations.
Differentiation and specialization reinforces heterogeneity. o Without common background and common activities, a premium is
placed on visual recognition; the uniform becomes symbolic of the
o No common set of values, no common ethical system to sustain
them; money tends to become measure of all things for which
there are no common standards.
o Formal controls as opposed to informal controls; necessity for
adhering to predictable routines; clock and the traffic signal
symbolic of the basis of the social order
o Economic basis: mass production of goods, possible only with the
standardization of process and products
o Standardization of goods and facilities in terms of the average
o Adjustment of the educational, recreational, and cultural services
to mass requirements.
o In politics, success of mass appeals – growth of mass movements
The above schematic is an outl ine of Wirth’s theory. (source: Shevky & Bell, 1955)
PEOPLE IN CITIES BEHAVE BASED ON SIZE, DENSITY, AND HETEROGENEITY
§ class organization
§ Physical environment
§ Based on the technology available.
o Gemmeinschaft vs. Gesselschaft
o Organic vs. mechanical solidarity
o Talked about social psychology of living in cities
§ Being rational when living in cities
§ “Social reserve”
• Robert Park
o Learn about cities by going out and observing they way it works. –
• Louis Wirth
o “Urbanism as a way of life”
§ Size, density, and heterogeneity are what cause people to
behave in certain ways, in cities – Urbanism
• How the physical space of a city s haped interactions of people.
• Ernest Burgess (1925)
o Came up with the ‘concentric zone model’
§ CBD – he called the loop. ú Certain economic activities want to be located near
the centre – banking, etc
§ Zone in Transition – Factory zone
ú Some rich people, some poor people
ú Its shifting from one function to another
• Business to residential, etc
ú Over time, more and more businesses want to be
located in the loop, so the zone of transition gets
§ Zone of workingmen’s homes
ú ‘blue-collar’ living
ú close to the zone in transition – close to factories and
§ Residential zone
ú People with more money live here
ú Large lots, higher standard of living
§ Commuters zone
ú People here live far away from the hustle n’ bustle of
the populated city.
ú People here have money to commute to the CBD,
therefore higher class of people.
o Concentric Zone Model applies directly to Chicago, but Chi -town is
a semi-circle because it is along a shore.
• Homer Hoyt
o Wrote a book called “Structure and Growth of Residential
Neighbourhoods in American Cities” 1939
o Looked at 142 cities from 1900 to 1936, block by block.
§ Said that there was some validity in what Burgess said.
Some things are arranged in the Concentric Rings
§ But he said that cities grow along paths of least resistance.
They grow in the direction of transportation routes
(streetcar, subway, etc)
§ Cities grew outwards from the centre – rich people moved
ú Loop (CBD) in centre
ú Wedges along railways
ú Light manufacturing, warehousing, etc located not
too far from railways etc.
ú Rich people located on the ‘right side of the tracks’
ú Then middle class scattered around the rich
• Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman
o “Multiple Nuclei” theory
§ cities look more scattered. Each city grows and evolves in
their own way.
§ Each sector is bound by geophysical factors
ú Wholesale Light Manufacturing
ú Low-class Residential
ú Medium-Class Residential
ú High-Class Residential
ú Heavy Manufacturing ú Outlying Business District
ú Residential Suburb
ú Industrial Suburb
ú Commuters’ Zone
§ Every city develops uniquely due to historical, political,
geophysical, and economic factors
o First model to really consider “suburbia”
• Schevky and Bell
• Ryan Berry and Kasarda
o Linked together Geographical and Sociological (Sociographical)
o Another model of Chicago
So far, no model is any better than the other.
• Schwirian and Matre
o “The Ecological Structure of Canadian Cities” 1969
§ Social status – sectoral
§ Degree of familism = zonal distribution
• Michael J. White – “American Neighbourhoods” 1987
o Contemporary cities comprised of only 7 elements
§ Zone of stagnation
§ Pockets of poverty and minorities
§ Elite enclaves
§ Diffused middle class
§ Institutional anchors
§ Epicentres and corridors – suburbs just outside city limits
o Very similar to every other model, just cha nged names and added
‘epicentre and corridors’
• Some dude talking about ‘Edge cities’ - Garrot
o Suburbs based on the required utilization of the automobile
o ‘uptowns’ – pre-existing pockets of urbanization (Markham &
o ‘boomers’ – happens near intersection of major highways
o ‘greenfields’ – build in greenbelts – lots of parkland. It is important
to have a lot of green space, but development is possible.
Rod McKenzie – Ecological Processes (1925)
o Went to ChicagoU with Wirth and Park, etc.
o Said that it is not important what a city looks like because things
are not static, so things will not look the same in a few years
ú Financial activities want to centralize.
ú Hotels want to be here, because this is where the
ú Gentrification applies here as well, when people want
to move closer to the CBD (CabbageTown)
§ Dispersion ú When new activities move in the centre, other
activities have to move out to periphery
ú Big companies have the money to move in, t herefore
the poor people are forced to move out because they
cant afford it. (‘push’ factor)
ú There are also ‘pull’ factors at play. Cheaper land
farther away from the CBD. This pulls people out of
the centre because the farther land is very nice and
ú Segregation of activities
• Retail is segregated from manufacturing
ú Zoning laws at play, which tell you what you can and
cannot do in a particular area.
ú Certain societies segregate races, religion,
ú Voluntary or involuntary segregation
ú One activity or one group invades on the turf of
another group or activity
ú Gradual encroachment
• New group may be allowed (slowly) to enter
the area, as long as they have something to
offer, or there is something appealing about
• But as more and more move in, there begins
to be resistance because the area has
changed. They can only resist for so long
• Eventually, there is abandonment. They move
away from the area because they have had
enough and there is nothing else they can do.
ú A new balance point is reached. There is a
displacement of the old by the new
- A new natural area is created. It just happens.
Comes without conscious planning by the government. A
natural system just gets replaced by another natural
system. Concentration on the physical shape of the city.
Schwirian and Matre
• Focused more on Canadian cities
o Talked about how social statuses are arranged in sectors, rich
people along large or famous streets in cities, and happens with
the poor people along poor streets.
Rod McKenzie talked about ecological processes.
• The things that cause the changes within the city.
• 2) to 6) (on supplementary document) work together (centripetal and
centrifugal force, push-pull factors)
• There is a lot of criticism about this.
• States that there is a lot of competition for limited resources (such as
• Lack of cooperation
• Ignores cultural factors
• There is resistance by people against government to maintain areas
• Said that there is something about culture that can override economics.
Not just money that shapes neighbourhoods, because if this was the case,
then it would constantly be changed by those who have the most money.
• Symbolism and sentiment are key to shaping cities.
• Highly based his work on Louis Wirth.
• Has been critical of Louis Wirth and urban ecologists for about 30 yrs
• Said they were crazy basically. Said people like Wirth are determinist. If
you live in a place with certain characteristics, you beco me just like that.
• Gans said that not everybody in a city do not act the same. Just because
you live in a place with particular size, density, and heterogeneity, doesn’t
mean you act like everybody else
• Gans has a compositional perspective . You behave the way you do
because of your age, ethnicity, gender, race, religion, money, education,
and other sociodemographic characteristics. There are multiple lifestyles
within the city.
• Said he can prove his theory. There are 5 lifestyles present withing the
typical north American city. When you get to a certain population, people
will begin to act like each other.
§ Choose to live in the city, want to live in the core, because
it offers diversity of products, services, activities, people,
etc. All kinds of healthcare.
§ These people obviously have money. They can afford to
make the choice to live where they want
§ Tend to be highly educated. They can do cost benefit
§ They have specialized interests. They are fad and fashion
constant o Unmarried Childless
§ Often young couples, unmarried, living together. Cohabiting
to split costs (roommates)
§ Often university graduates, or retirees
§ Rational, exercise free will. They can choose where they
want to live based on what they want and what they don’t
want. They don’t make decisions to please everybody else,
they do what they want
§ They tend to be transient. Move around from place to place
because the place they live no longer fill their needs, so
they move wherever does.
§ More than 1/3 of city dwellers fal l in this category
o Ethnic Villagers
§ People who maintain a traditional lifestyle within the city.
§ Often occupy older neighborhoods.
§ These people live repetitive lifestyles. They have a habit of
what they do every day, every year, etc.
§ Tradition is very important.
§ They have important, meaningful contact with their
§ They are very protective, especially of the females. They
are very suspicious of outsiders
§ Most of these people have working class incomes, jobs (blue
§ This lifestyle is comforting for many people. They want to
live in a place similar to ‘gemmeinschaft’
o Deprived and trapped
§ These people didn’t have any choice. They are not happy
about this. They live where they live because its what they
§ They live in intense poverty. Below the poverty line.
§ They cannot escape easily. They are forced to stay in these
§ Often elderly.
§ Very little income, just enough for the necessities, barely
enough to get by.
§ Many of these people receive social assistan ce.
§ Many are people of minorities
§ Many are mentally handicapped
§ More and more females
§ More and more single parents (mainly female parents)
§ People who live in places like this usually live in fear. They
are afraid of strangers. They know very few of the people
around them. They are intimidated by their surroundings.
Constantly in fear of the outside environment.
§ Social deviants. People who don’t fit into the mainstream of
§ They go out because they have to go out, not because they
want to go out. Go to doctor, get food, etc.
§ They live like their in prison
§ ‘Urban ghettos’ o Disaffiliated
§ Cut off – from their families, friends, social assistance
§ People living on the streets – homeless.
§ Sleep in bus stations, stairwells, parkbenches.
§ Afraid to ask for help
§ Many of these people are ill in a lot of ways, mentally,
§ Visible minorities are growing.
§ These people do not like to be counted
§ ‘throwaway kids’ 16-21 yr olds on the streets.
§ Approx. 60,000 in NYC, 1,000 -5,000 in Toronto. ~200 in
• Tries to reconcile the ideas of Wir