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Western University
Sociology 2172A/B
Gale Cassidy

Product Placement 2013-04-20 5:43 PM An advertising technique used by companies to subtly promote their products through a non-traditional advertising technique, usually through appearances in film, television, or other media • In the past, shows were focused on not revealing the brand o Trailer Park Boys  Fuzzed out labels on chip bags; chances are the company didn’t want to be associated with Trailer Park Boys • Agreement between a manufacture and media company • 90% involve no exchange of money • Ford & Chevvy  Fight over who had the “good guys car” in the movie • Product placement dates back to the 1800s 1800s Debut: o Sunlight (soap) advertised in a march • E.T.  First example of product placement being used and paid off; kid dropped Reeses pieces to find his way back • Product Placement Montage o Sex and City  Chanel; Louis Vuitton, Starbucks, Sprint, LG o Superman  Coca Cola, Marlbaro o Spiderman  Dr. Pepper, Carlsberg Beer, Cingular, Samsung, Presidential o I am Legend  Mustang o Iron Man  Burger King • Our age group doesn’t notice advertisements in movies as much anymore; when it’s too prevalent we realize the company is sponsoring the movie; James Bond’s movie makes it look like a car commercial throughout the chase • Some of our age group finds it annoying when the movies try to hide the brand name  E.g. Putting something to cover the Apple on a Macbook • If movies put an obscure brand you're more likely to notice it • American Idol  Coca Cola • Breakfast Television  Tim Hortons E.T. • 1982 film featured Reese’s Pieces in a pivotal scene o Deal involved no money o Sales jumped 65% in 2 weeks o Became successful advertising tool • Prior to this, Reese's Pieces were a joke • One viewer said using Reese’s was ridiculous because no one ate them and that they should have used M&Ms  Reese’s Pieces basically became popular over night • Mars didn't think it would be worthwhile to have their product in the movie 980s – CBC soap opera Riverdale producer • Used product placement to provide realism • 250 different brand names • "If people are going to believe they're inside a Canadian mall, they're not going to believe it unless there are real companies and brand names around” • "A lot of our work is making sure the product sits in environments where it really belongs, that it won't insult the company” • Have to show the product in a good light  Don’t want to show James Bond drinking Heineken and then getting in an accident When Product Placement Goes Bad • Reebok’s breach-of-contract suit in Jerry Maguire • Movie was supposed to end with a full length commercial with the closing credits • Out of court settlement of $10 million Tomorrow Never Dies • 1997 • Largest product placement up to this 1997 • Over $100 million in marketing campaigns • James Bond went on to advertise for Visa • BMW, Heineken, Erickson, Loreal Die Another Day – 2002 • $120 million in marketing campaigns • Aston Martin is a Ford product Famous Product Placements • Budget Rent-a-Truck in Home Alone • Red Stripe Beer in The Firm  sales in U.S. rose by 50% • Junior Mints in Seinfield • Pizza Hut Pizza and Nuprin pain relievers in Wayne’s World • Ray Ban glasses in Risky Business and Men in Black • Predator 2 sunglasses worn in Men in Black  sales tripled to almost $5 million as a result of the movie • Chanel perfume in Anastasia  first product in an animated movie • Hasbro action toys in Small Soldiers • Virtual commercial in Toy Story and Toy Story 2  going down Barbie isle in the store; Mr. Potato Head • Warner Bros. film You’ve Got Mail is tied to America Online  America Online was the first of the email companies Largest Venues – March 2011 • American Idol (won) • The Celebrity Apprentice  127 • America's Next Top Model  88 • The Biggest Loser  88 Days of Our Lives • Cheerios  Slaps the product in consumer’s face • Chex Mix Modern Family – iPad Commercial • • Less of a product placement but more of a product kidnapping • Apple store shown on the show • Plot around the wife wanting to buy an iPad for her husband's birthday • Whole point on how it was presented was to show that the iPad is one that is going to be seen everywhere and be part of people’s lives Oakley Radars – Ogilvy • Largest product placement in history • When miners in Chile came out from being trapped underground for 69 days • Was on CNN • Miners had to wear very good protective eyewear because when they came up from underground they’d have to protect their eyes • Glasses cost $450 each  Oakley donated them to the 333 miners • News leaked out that Oakley was doing this for the miners • Estimated that Oakley got $41 million worth of advertising air time by providing these miners with glasses Pizza Hut rethinks US presidential debate stunt after criticism over product placement • Pizza Hut was daring people to ask the question “sausage or pepperoni” would get free pizza • Pie a week for 30 years or a cheque for $15000 • Using presidential debate was a backlash  disrespectful; shouldn’t be marketing for their company  Pizza backed out on their idea • Largest TV audience to watch a presidential debate since 1992 • When they were talking about on TV  showed Clinton and a woman asked do you wear boxers or briefs • Unethical? Depends where you’re doing it 1982 Super Bowl Commercial 2013-04-20 5:43 PM Thought to be the best ad  by Steve Jobs • 1984 Apple Macintosh Commercial • WzJo2sN4 Celebrities in Advertising • As rational for not being influenced by celebrity endorsements consumers talk about either disliking the celebrity or confusion as to why the celebrity is promoting the product • In the earlier days, when consumers were more niaved, someone famous would say “I drink Coke all the time because I like it” and the consumer would believe it • Sprite was trying to figure out how to get a larger part of the market share  Basketball player says he likes sprite; young people were skeptical o There was a video had the player to say Sprite and in the corner of the ad there would be money popping up which was making fun of Sprite Celebrity Advertisements: Exposing a Myth of Advertising Effectiveness • There are advertising agencies that get people to work for a whole year on super bowl ads • Average Lift o – 1.40% Celebrity ads o 8% Non-Celebrity Ads • Average Ace Score o 515 Celebrity o 529 Non-Celebrity Ads • 2600 ads looked at o 20% of celebrity ads had a negative impact o 12% of celebrity ads saw an increase  Chanel advertisement with Brad Pitt may be an exception; Ellen Degeneres may be a positive as well • Social media now has more of an impact o Kim Kardashian was the top paid spokesperson and got replaced by Charlie Sheen in 2011 as being the top tweeter endorser • Today’s consumer is “running the show” o Companies are trying to do what consumer’s want them to o Time crunched o Only influenced by ads that provide them with information that relates to them and that they feel is relevant and it must come from people that they are going to believe • Don Cherry  Goofy looking guy with dog • Nike had dropped Lance Armstrong 2010 Worst Celebrity TV Ads • Tiger Woods: Nike Did You Learn Anything? – 30% • Lance Armstrong: Radio Shack No Emoticons – 28% • Kenny Mayne: Gillette Good Segment - 28% • Dale Earnhardt Jr.: Nationwide Auto Insurance Coverage at the Right Price – 27% • Donald Trump: Macy Making …? 2010 Most Effective Celebrity TV Ad Performances • Oprah Winfrey: Liberty Mutual Think You Can Text and Drive? – 34% • Ed Burns: iShares Ed Burns Swallows Camera – 18% • Oprah Winfrey: Progressive Matthew Wilhound Killed by Cell Phone User…? Forget Acting, Charlie Sheen’s Tweets Could Make Him Millions •  Pays celebrities to Tweet about products o Toyota, Microsoft, and more  150 different brands use this company o Celebrity gets paid between $200 and $2500 to tweet on behalf of advertisers  brands get exposure from the celebrities followers o Charlie Sheen could become the companies most valuable asset  Kim Kardashian used to be their top asset o Charlie Sheen got 1 million followers the first day he was on the site o Sony, Microsoft and Old Navy might not want Charlie Sheen tweeting about them Subliminal Advertising 2013-04-20 5:43 PM • Ad with Brad Pitt  Chanel No.5 o Expecting it to be biggest seller over Christmas o Dog spoof of the Brad Pitt commercial • For the most part, people believe subliminal advertising is used by advertisers o People think they shouldn’t be trusted o Does it work? • Originator of the term “subliminal advertising” – James Vicary 1957 o Picnic Movie  “Eat Popcorn” & “Drink Coca-Cola”  Claim was that on a subliminal subconscious level, you’re picking up this message  Claimed that popcorn sales rose 60%, and Coke rose 20%  Vicary’s research was not replicated  research cannot be replicated so it was invalid  Interview in 1962  Vicary admitted that the whole thing was a hoax and a complete fabrication; popcorn and coke sales did not rise • Wilson Bryan Key – 1970s o Subliminal Seduction o Media Sexploitation o Use of subliminal sexual symbols or objects that’s used to entice consumers into buying and using products o Ritz Cracker has word sex in it  Elicit sexual arousal that makes the product more attractive to consumers o Gin Advertisement  naked images of women; ice cubes with sex embedded in them Subliminal Perception – Pratkanis and Greenwald (1998) • Sub-threshold Stimuli o “Eat popcorn” • Masked Stimuli o Where there’s a message given to the audience but then there’s some overriding stimuli that comes right after (e.g. bright light following the ad) • Unattended Stimuli o Embedded images  E.g. Ritz Cracker; words hidden in ice • Figurally Transformed Stimuli o Messages hidden in recordings o Play message backwards and hear the devil • Budweiser Ad o Subliminal hidden messages  Clouds look like a bra (not said to be a message but it’s the first one students notice)  Bottle fornicating with the cloud (there are no accidents in ads, they picked this on purpose”  Man lying down (cloud) with a penis  Woman lying down facing man • Levi’s Ad o Woman removing sweatshirt with hands crossed over her head looking like she’s frail, disadvantaged because her hands are crossed as if they’ve been tied over her head • Marlboro o Looks like man has an erection when he’s on his horse • Camel o Person in the front leg with an erection • Pepsi o When cans are stacked in a specific way, it spells sex o Example where people complained and something was done about it (pulled from shelves and redesigned) • Lipstick ad o Cheek lighted to make it look like penis in mouth when she’s applying lipstick • Coke o Person in the ice open mouth & penis o This was a case in which Coke did not plan this but one guy got creative and was fired • IKEA Magazine o Item selling for $6.99  sexual connotation o Dog has erection  ad was cut in half so dog was removed • D.J. Flooring Ad o Turn the ad upside down and looks like woman masturbating • Ladies hairdresser (Caprigcia) o Fingers between hair looks suggestive • Budweiser o “ser” part of Budweiser made to look like “sex” • Disney – Tangled o Word sex is seen on the man tangled with girl’s hair • Little Mermaid o When they’re getting married  priest has an erection • Aladdin o One of the towers is shaped like a penis o Aladdin sitting up in bed looks like an erection • Skittles o Word “Explosion” is preceded with a skittle with the letter S on it  S explosion • Flick Off Campaign o Effort to attract young people o Campaign  woman stands in front of the “I” in campaign so it looks like “FUCK” instead of FLICK • Disney Lion King o Sex imprinted in the sky in stars • ABC rejected KFC’s hidden message ad because of policy against subliminal advertising o If played slowly there was a hidden message that if you went to the website then you’d get a free buffalo sandwich o Way to prevent people from forwarding through commercials o Other networks aired  More than 70000 went online to get a coupon; website traffic increased by 60% o “I would think the networks would look to partner and encourage experimentation with techniques that involve the viewer and discourage them to skip the commercials” o “Broadcasters need to recognize that their role in a marketer’s media mix is going to evolve. They should evolve their points of view accordingly” • Controversy for Decades o Inconsistent use of the term subliminal o Lack of precise & standardized processes o Lack of adequate conception of conscious processes o Lack of empirical evidence to show that subliminal advertising is effective o Scientific community has not done a good job that coke and popcorn studies were a fabrication  not enough information given to people to make decisions • Ad for Jeans o Says: “SEX SELLS... Unfortunately we sell jeans”  Young people put in compromised or degrading positions • Calvin Klein o Minor compared to ads today o Bad boy of the 80s o Pushed the envelope o Brook Shields ad  most infamous jean campaign; most controversy  15 year old at the time  looked provocative at the camera and said “do you know what comes between me and my Calvin’s… Nothing” o Calvin Klein was more of a branding ad than advertising the product o Gloria Steinem  speaking out for woman’s rights  Says that this is worse than pornography  Supposed to be advertising jeans  in a way pornographic but made to be something else  “Klein was putting the model in a sexually submissive pose” o Marky Mark & Kate Moss  Woman looking thin and vulnerable  Criticized for provoking eating disorders o One of the first advertisers to show breasts in ad o Crossed the line between advertising and pornography  set was made to look like cheap 60s porn movie o Young girl --> can see crotch of panties Man ripping off his shirt  voice in ad saying rip off your shirt, I want to see your body, you look sexy; same voice telling woman to unbutton her shirt and take off her jeans Billboards in times square  people comment that they don’t want to see a billboard with sexual images when walking with their kids or grandmothers Calvin Klein 2009  Ad taken down in Australia; woman has no pants on; can be a rape scene; considered unacceptable in Australia and Poland o Kiddie Porn?  February 1999  Children’s underwar line  Full page ads  New York Post  Martha Stewart Living  New York Times  Huge billboard in Manhattan’s Times Square  Calvin Klein spokesman  “to capture the same warmth & spontaneity that you find in a family snapshot” • Pulled ads by himself  made him even more popular  Why the public outcry?  Calvin Klein ads not associated with childhood innocence  Clear definition, full-page ads • “Kiddie flesh to grab attention”  Ads are not morally innocent • Public didn’t believe him when he said these were pictures you’d see in families and there’s nothing wrong with it o Black woman represented in animal like poses • Killing Us Softly (video) o Contributing factor to eating disorders o More males suffering from eating disorders and over exercising • Natan Ad (Jewelry) o “The first remote control ever invented…” o All you need to do is give a woman a diamond and she’ll open their legs • Food for Freud o Banana looks like a penis • Bice Ad o Bread is life o bread looks like a penis • Noodles o Macaronis was turned into a woman’s body • Five Star o Porn figure for older people o Wants a pair in your car o Might thing breasts, but actually means the objects in her hands • PETA Ad o Turn over a new leaf, try vegetarian  Pamela in a green bikini o All animals have the same parts  billboard banned in Montreal • Tom Ford o Perfume bottles placed between woman’s legs • Ad for clothing company o Woman sitting and man’s head between her legs • Ad with Cat and Fire Hydrant o Ad for lubricant  Durex o Play o Wet Pussy connotation • Marc Jacobs o Dakota Fanning o Timid, shy look on her face o Perfume ad banned in the U.K.  thought to be too provocative because of the way she has the bottle positioned between her legs o Even though she’s 17, she’s made to look much younger o Advertising guidelines  Can’t make an adult woman look like a child, and can’t make a child look like an adult woman • FlexFleece o American Apparel o Criticized because they appear to be a company that isn’t going along with what other companies are doing o Girl presented in a sexualized way • The U.S. has no guidelines to advertising to children • In Quebec there’s no advertising allowed that targets the children under the age of 12 Advertising and Culture 2013-04-20 5:43 PM Awareness Test • Moon walking bear between players passing basketballs • Sidewalk drawings to increase sidewalk awareness  Auckland City • RAID Ad  Killed Spiderman • Brad Pitt Ad for Chanel No.5  SNL did a spoof of his ad o Could be the most successful advertising campaign ever o Suggestion that it’s a controversial ad o Brad Pitt was the first male face for Chanel no.5 o Chanel No. 5 was First released in 1921; always had its place in popular culture o Animals used in Chanel No. 5 parodies o Marilyn Monroe claimed that she slept every night in nothing but Chanel No. 5 • Know what culture is and what it is not What is Culture? • Culture consists of a body of learned behaviours o Common to a given human society o Acts like a template • Rules of how we should be behaving • Certain set of values • North Americans have quite a big personal space o Sitting between 2 people on a bench is like breaking a rule in North America whereas it is the norm in European places • Passed on from generation to generation • Culture is learned • Socializing agents  where you get your messages from; the ones who socialize you o Most important  family o Media is now becoming more of a socializing agent • Mental processes, beliefs, values, knowledge • Can be a divergence between what we know is right (how we’re supposed to behave) and how we actually behave • Material culture  what we buy, what we wear, etc. • Many qualities of life that are transmitted genetically and then there are those that are learnt o Genetic/physiological  body says you need food o Cultural  what will you eat Advertising • Advertising permeates modern culture o ‘What’s wrong with that?’  People treated as being docile; don’t have a mind of their own; don’t have any agency; being brainwashed with whatever message that companies are putting out there  Wider, important issues being ignored  Negative effect on culture of our society o 5 massive conglomerates giving us our information o Introduction of Internet  rise of .com industries Merchants of Cool (Frontline Video) – first 20 mins • Tapping into the youth market to find out what it is about the culture that will make it possible to sell what they are selling • Teen market = part of massive empire • Teens are like Africa  most stunning of society • Teens are given $125 each to answer the focus group questions • Teens run today’s economy; given a lot of “guilt money” • Typical teen will be exposed to over 3000 advertisements a day • Teens are a stubborn demographic • “Cool hunting”  structured around a certain kind of personality • Looking for the 20% of trend setters to influence the other 80% • Correspondent  trained to find the leading kid of the group, the trend setter • “Cool hunting kills what it finds”  by discovering cool, you force cool to move on to the next thing • Sprite found that teens were cynical toward the traditional approach of advertising so they created ads that poked fun toward advertising itself and when teens caught on to this Sprite developed relationships with artists and they starting selling a lifestyle • Cornerstone helped Sprite to smuggle their messages into the world of kids • Sprite is now the fastest growing soft drink in the world • Sprite is associated and is a part of hip hop culture • 5 Media Giants that are selling all culture: o Rupert Murdock o Disney o Viacom  coolest; MTV o Universal Vivendi o Time Warner • Everything about MTV is an advertisement • MTV broke the first rule of cool  don’t let your advertising show • Tom Cunningham …? • Whole point is to become a part of youth culture • Ethnography study o Researchers go into a community and study individuals in their own habitat o Ask what they like to do, what they like to wear, etc. o Get an idea of what makes kids
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