Lecture 1 01/11/2012
Why study cells?
We don’t understand a lot about cell still
What is a cell?
Cells come in all shapes and sizes?
How are the cells all genetically identical but their shape is different
How do we study cells?
What you need to do is have to have a experimental molecule – you take cells from a multicellular
If we have a pure population of cells you can manipulate them and do many things and find out amny things
and once you do that you can answer the questions of biology
We can take cells from tissues from our body (skin cells) and we culture it in a dish but we have to do
certain things to these cells frist
What we need to do is break apart the cells
The cells stick together by extracellular matrix
We use things like trypsin to help the cells get off the surfaces it sticks to
We also have to give the cells proper nutrients – so we culture them in a media that has all the nutrients
that the cell needs to live and divide (growth factors are needed)
Serum – blood in a cellular part – they have growth factors in them that allows the cells to grow
We put CO2 in the incubator to mimic our body that has some CO2 in it
One thing we want to do is grow cells in monolayer so we use sticky proteins
If we take mouse myoblasts (muscle cells) and we pt it on the dish you will just get little dots, but what you
can do is change the media (add different growth factors) the cells can differentiate (they start to flatten out
and project out)
The problem is when we do these kinds of cultures (primary cell culture) is that you can only do it for so
long because they fill up the dish and then they stop dividing and then you add trypsin and they come off
the dish and you put them on another dish and they grow until the whole dish and then you can do this
again but these cells only divide a certain number of time (approx. 50 generations)
Cell line – cells that grow indefinitely – you can keep splitting them and they will grow and grow –
These cells are deregulated and tricked to grow more First human cell line called HeLa
Understand aspects of cell divisio