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Lecture 9

Sociology 2206A/B Lecture 9: Week 9

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Sociology 2206A/B
William Marshall

March 1, 2017 Quantitative Techniques Obtained through: - Experiments- explanatory research involving group comparisons, definitive data, numbers - Surveys- descriptive research asks many people numerous questions, number one in sociology - Content analysis- assessment of written, pictorial or symbolic material, manifest or latent - Existing statistic- using previously collected information to examine old or create new findings Role of Statistics - Statistics are one of the most important means by which research and theory interact - Quantitative research is impossible without statistics - Permit us to analyze data, identify relationships and revise theories Levels of measurement - Nominal~ non-parametric, lowest - Ordinal~ non-parametric - Interval~ distance is meaningful - Ratio~ absolute zero, highest Results with One Variable - Frequency distribution - Descriptive statistics - Univariate statistics - Frequency distribution - Histogram/bar chart/pie chart - Frequency polygon - Figure 10.1 - Description helps make more sense, 2 columns have 99 options, computer reads instead - Code books tells you what it means, tells computer information - General Social Survey is on OWL - Figure 10.2 Univariate Stats Measures of Central Tendency - Mean~ arithmetic average, interval or ratio level, very sensitive to extreme values - Median~ 50th percentile, ordinal, interval, or ratio - Mode ~ most common or frequent occurring score, lowest level Figure 10.3, mode, median, mean, tail, if skewed use median Measures of Variation - In general, variation is defined as the spread, dispersion, or variability around center of distribution - Range~ distance between smallest score and largest group - Percentiles~ scores at a specific place within the distribution: a 25th percentile might indicate that 25% of respondents were under age 26 - Standard deviation~ average distance of each score from the mean, requiring interval or ratio level data - Z score~ standardized score, and it represents the number of standard deviations of a particular score above or below the mean Results with Two Variables - Bivariate statistics indicate relationships between two variables that may exist due to covariation or independence - Covariation is when two variables go together or are associated statistically - Independence means that there is no association between two variables, it is the opposite of covariation - Scattergram is a graph on which a social researcher plots each case or observation; each axis represents the value of one variable, and can be used for variables that are measured at the interval or ratio level What can be learned from a scattergram - form~ relationship can take three forms: independence (no relationship), linear (forming a straight line), or curvilinear (forming either a u or s curve) - Direction~ can be one of two values: positive or negative Reading a Percentage Table - First look at table, variable names, any background information - Look at direction - Look at percentages? - Look for independent and dependent variables, columns are independent, rows and dependent, percentage down, calculate column percentages Measures of Association - Single number that expresses the strength, often direction, or relationship between two or more variables - Measures of association are lambda, gamma, tau, chi (squared), and rho - Strong association means that there is a definite pattern in predicting scores on dependent from variations in independent Stages in Sample Survey Research 1. Planning~ topic, variables, research 2. Sample selection~ probability sampling techniques 3. Questionnaire development 4. Pre-testing~ similar to people in your sample, test, problems 5. Field-work 6. Preparation for analys
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